The News Bolton 11-13-1918

Causes of WWI

By Luz

During WW1 there are many effects why WW1 was caused, and how it had a big impact to the world and nation.

In the beginning of WW1, One major cause was the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand. This caused WW1 by he was a major person before WW1 he was heir of Austro Hungarian empire which many people were not pleased about which led to WW1 in July 28, 1914.

Another cause of WW1 was Militarism. This caused WW1 by Germany having a greatest increase in military. Military began to have a great influence on public policy. Which increase in militarism help push the countries involving and getting into war, which had caused countries to fight against each other by military.

Another cause of WW1 was Alliances. This caused WW1 by countries which are Allied powers and Central powers. The allied power were French Republican, British empire, and Russian empire. The Central powers were Austria Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire. These Alliances caused WW1 to happened by, Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia, Russia got involved and defending Serbia. Germany declared war on Russia which France was then drawn against Germany and Austria-Hungary. Then Germany attack france through belgium pulling from britain into war. Later on Japan got involved into war later, Italy and the United States would enter and defend the side of the allies.

Next, Imperialism got involved and was a cause of WW1. This caused WW1 by having control and power over a country such as, wealth and bringing additional territories under their own control. Imperialism brought other countries valued because of raw material in part of area that would provide value for needs. This increase competition and desire for greater empires leading to an increase which had lead in confrontation that helped push the countries towards WW1 that caused it to happened.

Lastly, A cause of WW1 is Nationalism. Nationalism was the cause of WW1 by the various countries throughout Europe contributing not the beginning but the extension of war in Europe, Each of the country tried to prove their dominance and power. This also based on desire of the Slavic people in Bosnia and Herzegovina to no longer be part of Austria Hungary but took part of Serbia. This caused Nationalism to get involved the start of WW1.

Battles of the War

By Daniel

Battle of Verdun casualties 967,000 as the battle of the Somme was being planned, the French fortress near the the town of Verdun sur Meuse.Though the German goal was to capture the town, a much simpler one was even more apparent; simply kill so many French soldiers that it would break the French morale and force them to abandon the fight.The French thought stubbornly defended Verdun and inflicted horrific casualties on the while suffering horrific casualties of their own in return.Nearly 40 million artillery shells were fired leaving huge craters in its path. Verdun came to be for the French and Germans of the horrors of war in general, and of the futility of World War 1 in general.

The battle of the Somme was an example of a slaughterhouse of the war. Planned in 1916 the goal was planned to be a cooperative assault of both British and French. But the German attack on Verdun forced the Allies to change their plans and became a British offense.They started by having a barrage of artillery hoping to damage the defenses.On opening day the British suffered 60,000 casualties in one day, attacks continued all along the Somme until the 13 of November when the offensive finally ended.The battle was strategically important for the allies, as it forced the Germans to lose 40 miles and later set the stage for the final Allied victory in 1812.

Trenches and Technology

By Ronan

Trench warfare is brutal. Life was filled with boredom. The conditions were unsanitary, wet and cold. British trenches were filled with disease and infection due to this problem. You would have a hard time sleeping due to an almost constant bomb or grenade sent towards your trench line. The use of tanks started a couple months into the war. Tanks would fit around seven of our soldiers in them. France was the first to start putting tanks out on the battlefield and germany soon followed their lead. Muddy conditions posed challenges. Both sides are using rifles as primary weapons that had bayonets at the end of the rifle. The rifles are able to shoot about ten rounds a minute. Machine guns were used for close range battles and or for protecting a form of higher ground. When near the oceans the British used their fleet of ships while Germany had there sneaky yet tactically efficient U-Boats. During the battles as the troops would start to run out of supplies the British Royal Air Force would send big cargo planes with supply drops to refuel the soldiers. In edition not to forget the paratroopers, they would jump out of the planes as assistance in battle or to start a new line of soldiers.

Germany's Reparations: The Treaty of Versailles

By Ada

As the war has now ended, there has been news of a “Treaty of Versailles” that is in the middle of being constructed. It is to be shown to the main losing party,Germany, and it is said that it will be a very brutal document that demands many harsh limitations.

One of the first of these limitations will be addressed to Germany’s overall army and “military manpower.” Their military has to be reduced to only one hundred thousand men by March 31 of 1920. There are to be only four thousand officers and the general staff is to be “abolished.” Not only does the amount of men need to be diminished, but they must also receive less military training as well. Conscription is to be outlawed and the army will be staffed only by “long-term professionals.” Men who enlisted and officers who were “non-commissioned” are going to have to serve twelve years, and high-end officers will have to serve twenty-five years.

Another of the treaty’s qualifications states that the fortifications that are west beyond a one hundred and thirty mile line east of the Rhine River must be destroyed within a four month period, after this line is drawn. Germany is also to be prohibited from building fortifications within the Rhine area.

Along with those, constraints will be “placed upon German armaments, munitions, and materials. Their arms and munitions production will only be allowed in Allied-approved facilities, and stores have to be concentrated at specific locations.

An additional limitation to Germany’s army, refers to the naval and air branches. The German navy is to be diminished to only “six battleships of older design, six light cruisers, twelve destroyers, and twelve torpedo boats.” Their navy, overall, is not allowed to exceed fifteen thousand men, which includes a maximum of fifteen hundred officers. Specific fortifications are not to be upgraded and certain islands will not be allowed to contain military personnel.

On the other hand, all airforce aspects are to be “banned entirely.” Aircrafts or aircraft engines can not be manufactured or imported, and Germany will be obliged to “surrender specific number of aircraft, engines, aircraft manufacturing machinery, instruments, and aircraft armaments.”

Although the Treaty of Versailles will be directed towards Germany, it is said that other treaties are to be created for the “lesser members of the… Central Powers.” And albeit it seems to be a harsh treaty, there are said to be many other conditions included within, but they are yet to be said.

The Central Powers

By Luz

Central powers are countries like Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Ottoman Empire got involved with WW1. The Central powers got involved in WW1 by having many militarism and imperialism over another country. The central powers had a major conflict with the allied powers, Central power wanted more imperialism from the Allied powers which are Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States. All theses Allied powers wanted war against the Central powers which, The Central powers wanted war against them. Because of this, This caused war by the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand who was a Russian empire during WW1. The Central power leaders that control countries for war against allied powers were, Kaiser Wilhelm ll of Germany, Kaiser and king Franz Joseph of Austria Hungary, Sultan Mehmed V of the Ottoman Empire, and lastly Tsar Ferdinand V of Bulgaria. Thus, these Important people had an impact of WW1 and how they fought war against the allied powers. Overall, The Central powers are still important into the history of WW1.

The Allied Powers

By Ronan

The Allied powers consisted of Britain, France, Russia, Italy and the United States. They were the the main reason that there war didn't spread across the world, they kept it contained to mostly Europe. The British were the lead country of the war on the allied side. Later into the war is when the United States came in to help clean up and finish the war. Begging battles of the war were lead by Britain and France coming at Germany from the west, while Italy came from the South and Russia came from the north east. The Allies were defending not only themselves but other countries that bordered and that were near Germany and other countries that were a part of the Central Powers.

The Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand

By Daniel

Archduke Franz Ferdinand was the heir to the Austrian throne and he and his wife was assassinated on June 28 1914. A serb nationalist, Gavrilo Princip , part of the nationalist group, the Black Hand, sought for more independence for Serbia - so he assassinated Ferdinand (in Sarajevo) in hopes of achieving so this event triggered WWI. After this assassination, Austria Hungary declared war on Serbia.This then caused a chain reaction by causing Russia to declare war on the Austrian dragged more countries in the war by the alliances that Serbia and Austria had. So the war grew from there, thus becoming the infamous World War I.

Why Russia Left the War

By Ada

Additional news as to why Russia had left WWI has recently been uncovered. Knowingly, before the war, Russia's economy was going through some rough times, and war wasn't making matters easier. Soldiers weren't able to get enough weapons or ammunition and felt that they were going to war at a "severe disadvantage." Civilians could not get enough "food or fuel," and they were speaking of a revolution. The family of Czar Nicholas, who ruled Russia, was also adding to the rapidly increasing problems. And with these problems, Germany decided they should take one final blow to deal with Russia, who they had been fighting since the brink on the war.

This battle, which occurred in May of 1915, took place "just inside the Austro-Hungarian border." Within only two days, the Germans abolished the Russian 3rd Army, and over 100,000 soldiers were taken as prisoners. Eventually, the Russians were driven out of the Austro-Hungarian territory. Though a Russian general saw that Germany was going to take it a step further, by surrounding the remaining Russian forces. So a large-scale retreat from Poland was ordered, and Russia lost the territory.

Czar thought this terrible disaster, which included the loss of men and territory, needed a scapegoat, so he executed his cousin and put himself in direct control of the Russian military. But Czar lacked military expertise and he horribly put his wife and her advisor, Rasputin, in charge of domestic issues.

Even with these problems, there was another commander who said he would help prevent Russia's decline, and he did. Later, he was able to regain a lot of Russia's former lost territory, but supplies were running out and the army was weak.

Although, the main reason as to why Russia left the war was due to Czar taking control of the military. It set off a series of events that were very unfortunate. Russia had already been going through a brutal time with industrialization, rapid population increase, poverty, and annoyed, non-committable workers, and having Czar's wife, Alexandria, and Rasputin in charge of the civil government, social matters were sought to with even greater force than they ever were before. Aristocrats planned to assassinate Rasputin, but even his death could not help the nation.

By mid-1917, the people were in a full revolt against the government. People faced starvation and rising food prices, and protests took place. Soldiers wanted food, as well for the war to be over. A temporary government was set, but even they did not want to end the war. People started to take matters into their own hands. Representatives of the workers, known as the "soviets" (the most radical of them known as Bolsheviks) and their leader, Vladimir Ilich Lenin, had a plan to "put control of the government in their hands," and it had worked. Afterwards, their first order of business was to ask Germany for a truce to end the war. The price Russia had to pay was the independence of many "states and provinces of the Russian Empire." The Bolsheviks refused a first, but later accepted Germany's terms, knowing that a refusal would lead to increased troubles. With this, Russia signed a treaty, ending their involvement in the war.

The Obituaries

Both By Ada

Adolf Hitler

There are inside rumors of a man named Adolf Hitler that say he had recently “decided to enter politics… to fight the Jews” in response to Germany’s loss in the war. Much background information has been received to possibly understand this man’s strong beliefs and how they can affect the future.

Adolf Hitler was born on April 20, 1889 in Braunau, Austria. He had stayed in his country of birth during his years of youth. From the years 1900 to 1905, he attended “Realshule (secondary school), which concluded his formal education.” His father died in 1903, and seven years later, Hitler took an entrance test for a school of the arts, in which he had failed. His mother died later that year, and Hitler became an orphan, made Vienna his home in 1908.

Anti-Semitism was common in Vienna at this time, and Hitler had said that “the Vienna period of his life was formative and decisive in shaping his views, and especially his concept of the Jews.” It is still not certain if he is an antisemite, but it would be important information to be able to predict what this man’s rising power and strong beliefs are capable of.

Erich Ludendorff

Information on military personnel who were part of the Central Powers is constantly being discovered. We are analyzing these people and their histories to try and understand exactly how they affected the war. Many of these people are specifically German.

Included in these German individuals is Erich Ludendorff, a man born in Kruszewnia, Prussia, and was a German general and politician during the war. He was able to rise within his military schools and become a shining star when it came to doing what needed to be done. In 1904, he became a part of the Imperial General Staff, and ten years later he became a brigade commander.

His fame grew when he invaded the Belgian city of Liege, and later he was appointed the “subordinate” of Paul von Hindenburg. Working together, the two men were able to win the “greatest German victories of World War I.” Of these, included the battles of Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes. Although Ludendorff was a part of these battles, the glory was only given to the adept Hindenburg.

Ludendorff was a part of many other things throughout the war though, and further knowledge of these involvements are still to be introduced. The authorities are doing their best on keeping the public up to date on these important matters. Hopefully, with more information, we can better understand our foreign former enemies to better prevent any future wars or conflicts.

Credits:

Created with images by bmewett - "ww1 trench warfare"

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