Ernesto Miranda was arrested in his home in Phoenix, Arizona on March 13, 1963 and taken in by the police who interrogated him about his connection to a kidnapping and rape. After interrogating him for two hours, the police acquired a written confession from Miranda. The confession was shown as evidence at trial, and even though the policemen who had questioned Miranda admitted to not advising him to have an attorney present during the interrogation, the jury found him guilty.
Because Miranda was never told his rights - including the right to remain silent, his right to have a lawyer, and the fact that everything he stated during his interrogation could be used against him in court - he objected to his verdict. He claimed that had he known his rights, he would not have given his confession so voluntarily. The objection was overruled and Miranda was found guilty of the kidnapping and rape and therefore was sentenced to 20-30 years in prison for both charges.
An appeal based on the confession's allegedly involuntary nature was rejected by the Arizona Supreme Court. The Arizona Supreme Court stated that Miranda's fifth amendment had not been violated because it protects against self-incrimination in all settings. While Miranda was still found guilty for his crimes, the Supreme Court still ordered that statements from an interrogation could not be used unless the suspect was aware of his rights before giving any confessions.
Author: John Marshall Harlan II
Harlan felt that the majority opinion lacked support in the text of the law and argued that creating beliefs through speculation reduced the legitimacy of constitutional law overall.
Author: Byron Raymond White
Just like Harlan, White observed that the majority did not have any textual foundation in the Constitution for its opinion and also lacked any Court precedents. After researching English common law, he confirmed it had no support for the Supreme Court.