Adjacency pairs (utterance function and expected response)
greeting - greeting
congratulation - thanks
apology - acceptance
inform - acknowledge
leave-taking - leave-taking
Action as nouns
Repetition, hesitations, and redundancy
Differences between spoken and written discourse: grammatical intricacy; lexical density; nominalization; explicitness; contextualization; spontaneity; and repetition, hesitations, and redundancy (Paltridge, 2012).
Synchronous vs. asynchronous
Rank from synchronous (inter-personally involved) to asynchronous (detached)...