Chemistry By: Brayan lopez


Heat and temperature are related to each other, but are different concepts.

  • Heat is the total energy of molecular motion in a substance while temperature is a measure of the average energy of molecular motion in a substance.
  • Temperature is not energy, but a measure of it. Heat is energy.

Laws of thermo

  • The first law, also known as Law of Conservation of Energy, states that energy cannot be created or destroyed in an isolated system.
  • The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of any isolated system always increases.
  • The third law has no molecule motion at absolute 0.

Calories and specific heat

  • 4.186 Joule = 1 calories.
  • Another common energy unit is the calorie.
  • The calorie, cal, is defined as the amount of energy (heat) needed to increase the temperature of one gram of water.
  • The specific heat is the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by one degree Celsius.


Up-cycling vs down-cycling

  • Up-cycling is making making a more valuable product.
  • Down-cycling is making a less valuable product through recycling such as plastic, paper, and cardboard

Types of plastic and issues

  • Plastics and their byproducts are littering our cities, oceans, and waterways, and contributing to health problems in humans and animals.
  • Types of plastic are Polyethylene terephthalate, High-density polyethylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Low-density polyethylene, Polypropylene, Polystyrene

Recycling metals and paper

  • Paper is recycled in our everyday life, fibers get smaller. As the fibers get smaller, it gets down-cycled into tissues and other things.
  • Aluminum can be recycled and not go to waste. Iron and steel are the most recycled materials and are among the easiest materials to reprocess.

Plant nutrients

Soil profiles

  • Micro - Micronutrients are present in plant tissue in quantities measured in parts per million
  • Macro - Macronutrients are consumed in larger quantities and are usually present in plant tissue


  • Fertilizer is a substance that contains macro nutrients
  • There are only two types of fertilizer which are inorganic and organic
  • Fertilizers also increase in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)

Deficiencies and Toxicities

  • Deficiencies are generally grouped into five categories: 1) stunted growth, 2) chlorosis, 3) interveinal chlorosis, 4) purplish-red coloring and 5) necrosis
  • Multiple deficiencies and/or toxicities can occur at the same time
  • More than one deficiency or toxicity can produce symptoms, or possibly an abundance of one nutrient can induce the deficiency of another


Soil Profiles

  • This layer generally forms above the mineral soil or occurs in an organic soil profile
  • Most soil profiles are composed of a series of horizons, or layers of soil stacked on top of one another

Sand, silt and clay

  • Silt - Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar
  • Clay - Clay is a finegrained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with traces of metal oxides and organic matter
  • Sand - Sandy soils are granular soils that contain small rock and mineral particles, and the texture of sandy soils is usually gritty (This soil feels course whether it is dry or wet.)

Issues with soil and soil properties

  • In addition to erosion, soil quality is affected by other aspects of agriculture, these impacts include compaction, loss of soil structure, nutrient degradation, and soil salinity
  • Soil's properties – its texture, structure, porosity, chemistry and colour (levels of from organic to the least)


Properties of water

  • The five main water properties are Its attraction to polar molecules, High-specific heat, High heat of vaporization, The lower density of ice, High polarity

Types of water pollution

  • There could be many types of pollution that could effect the environment and also living animals such as trash and oil spills
  • Too much fertilizer is bad for the soil which could come in contact with rivers or lakes and kills oxygen in water

Water treament

  • Some ways t prevent pollution from starting is to not dump most of human waste into the ocean
  • People need to start cleaning up trash from the beaches

Water issues

  • The issue about water is that only 3% of it is only purified water and the rest is non-drinkable
  • Ground water is only for limited time and could sometimes be contaminated

Atoms and Ions

Atomic Theory

  • Atomic theory is a scientific theory of the nature of matter, which states that matter is composed of discrete units called atoms


  • An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons

Ionic compounds

  • An ionic compound is a chemical compound comprising ions held together by electrostatic forces termed ionic bonding


Created with images by Pexels - "hands macro plant" • Jing - "soil hand farm" • bella67 - "drip drop of water wave"

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