The American Dream Being American isn't always easy.

Being American isn’t always easy. Neither is becoming an American. Whether they’re met with open arms or closed doors, immigrants inevitably face struggles when coming to the U.S. From overcoming a language barrier to making sense of a new culture, these newcomers often realize that the American Dream can come with its fair share of sleepless nights. The past might be painful, the present can be confusing and the future may seem uncertain, but these are the faces of some of those immigrants. These are their struggles, their dreams.

This is their story.

A Nation Caught in an Immigration War

The new Trump administration has made restricting immigration a forefront policy objective, and some of their policies have been challenged by people across the country.

The U.S. has forever been a place where immigrants come to start a new life, gain an education and even start a new family. Immigrants have sought refuge not just within the borders of the U.S. but also within the embracing comfort of those who accept them. However, throughout its history, the U.S. has had a pattern of not letting people enter this country for a large spectrum of reasons. At this moment, the status of immigration is very vague and ever-changing due to recent actions on immigration by the Trump administration, including what some have called a “Muslim ban.”

“It is very disheartening,” sophomore Eve Abuazza, whose father immigrated from Libya, said in regards to President Trump’s actions on Muslim immigration. “My family is very upset that this new president is so close-minded. He is blindly seeing ‘the vast majority’ as harmful people. Many people from those nations are looking to escape and new opportunities. I understand safety, but those people also want safety.”

Last month, the Trump administration also announced its plans about illegal immigration. The new actions that the president announced are not a change in law, but an increase in enforcement of the current law. The working theory of congressional Republicans is that increased border enforcement results in a discouragement to enter the U.S. illegally.

This stance differs from both Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama, who sought for stricter border policies while balancing the humanitarian needs of immigrants. Under past presidents, people residing in the U.S. without legal permission were not usually deported unless they committed a crime, but now, under Trump, these people are always able to be deported at anytime, and will be sought out to be deported. Trump has described this force to be of a military nature. The new measures do not attack the DREAMers initiative created under Obama that did not punish children of immigrants living in the U.S. illegally.

Furthermore, in order to increase the security of the nation, the Trump administration tried to decrease the ability of immigrants to travel to the U.S. from certain countries. To do this, on Jan. 27 Trump signed an executive order that banned immigration for a period of time from seven Middle Eastern and North African countries: Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, Sudan, Syria and Somalia.

“It is completely overboard,” attorney Contessa Brundridge said. “It applies to lawful permanent residents and those with visas. It is unconstitutional on this basis, and it is a restriction of due process. It also shows a religious preference, which presents an interesting argument of religious discrimination.”

Many people pride themselves on being American after immigrating to the U.S., including Eve’s father, who immigrated to the U.S. from Libya.

“He told me about how coming here, he felt welcomed here, but he was just worried of failing,” Abuazza said. “He knew three words in English before coming here. He was interested in learning new things and starting a new life. He was more excited about that than afraid.”

After an increasing number of protests nationwide and legal challenges to the executive order, multiple courts struck down the ban within the weekend. There was a protest at Lambert St. Louis International Airport on Sunday, Jan. 29 where people from the St. Louis area gathered to stand in solidarity with those affected by the actions of the Trump administration.

Several hundred protestors gather on the departures deck of St. Louis-Lambert International Airport on Jan. 29 from noon to 4 p.m., joining groups across the country in response to President Donald J. Trump’s executive order barring immigration from predominately-Muslim countries in the Middle East. “There’s strength in numbers,” protestor Lizet Dickinson said. “It’s important to keep fighting.” The demonstration happened in cooperation with airport administration without any effect to landside or airside airport operations. (Photos by Chase Meyer)

“There were over 1,000 people there and it was incredibly peaceful,” Brundridge said. “There were chants that were of a positive nature about supporting immigrants and refugees and demonstrations to support these people while opposing the Trump administration. It was interesting to see people of all ages there. Every walk of life, demographic was represented at the protest.”

These wins in court for the pro-immigration force were not left unchecked by Trump. After the Trump administration asked for an emergency reinstatement of the executive order, the Ninth Circuit Appeals Court denied it and upheld the ruling of the earlier district court.

“This executive order was morally wrong because the U.S. is a country that welcomes refugees, and they already have an extensive process that is over two years of vetting for these refugees,” Brundridge said. “This seems to be un-American.”

It is also important to understand where Trump’s policies come from: genuine worry for the nation’s security. Therefore, the administration has called these measures extreme vetting.

“It helps some people feel more secure and safer in their own country, but then there are people who disagree and protest against it,” Ryan Woods, junior Young Republicans member, said. “But it also harms the United States by creating conflicts that cause people to butt heads on opinions and what they think about it.”

Since the beginning of U.S. history, different groups of people have been persecuted for immigrating to the U.S. It used to be the Catholics, the Irish, the south and eastern Europeans, the Chinese and other minority groups. To some people, someone, from somewhere, is somehow threatening the American way of life, and the government may try to restrict those people from coming in.

The future may hold a more progressive society as evident by various protests and legal reforms around the country, or it could hold quite the opposite. It could also see increasing security concerns and, therefore, further restrictions.

Sophomore Alex Pintor follows along as another student in the class reads an article from the Easy English News February newspaper by Elizabeth Claire. Each month, Freeman’s class reads a new newspaper and discusses the topics. The newspaper contains articles about upcoming events in the month, news and history that the students look forward to reading. (Photo by Riley McCrackin)

Out of Many, One Language Barrier

Regardless of their origins, immigrants often face linguistic challenges when trying to fit in to life in the U.S.

Though they may leave behind vastly different worlds, newcomers to the United States usually share one experience: learning English.

This task can sometimes be challenging, but not learning the language can make life even more difficult, according to Shelley Thomas-Benke, who tutors a family from Syria. Everything from getting a driver’s license to making friends requires a minimal understanding of the language. Even more pressing, not knowing English can complicate students’ schooling, putting them behind their American peers.

“For them, it’s sink or swim, and they’ve done a good job trying to pick up English as quickly as they can,” Thomas-Benke said, speaking of the family she tutors. “If you want to become an American, you have to do it and you have to do it quick, and they’re not going home. They’re trying to become a part of America as quickly as they can.”

To help with this goal, FHN has a program known as ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages). Teacher Anne Freeman and a team of paras guide their 41 students through the English language and provide the support they need to be successful in all of their classes.

Most of these students take Freeman’s class as an elective for one hour a day, but they also take other classes like any other student. To ensure that the language barrier doesn’t keep them behind in their other subjects, paras go to certain core classes with them and help them understand the content.

“They’re very motivated,” Thomas-Benke said. “They want to become Americans and get completely into American culture. The desire is there and the work ethic is there.”

“If the students didn’t have these services, then they would more than likely not be successful in their classes,” Freeman said. “They probably would drop out of school and, even if they were in a class, they’d be struggling the whole way. They wouldn’t feel successful and their regular teachers wouldn’t feel successful either. They would know a student is struggling and they would not have the extra help to be able to get that student extra support.”

Teaching immigrants or refugees of any age can sometimes be difficult, Thomas-Benke says. Many tutors are volunteers who have little to no formal training: Thomas-Benke, for example, doesn’t speak Arabic and often relies on Google Translate. Even teachers who work with immigrants full time, like Freeman, must usually stick to simple language and hand gestures because their students come from such diverse linguistic backgrounds.

Experiences abroad can also make it harder for immigrants and refugees to learn English. For example, the brothers Thomas-Benke teaches, the oldest of which is only 14, had to survive the Syrian Civil War before coming to the U.S.

“They’ve been through a lot of trauma, and when you’ve gone through trauma, your brain takes in information differently,” Thomas-Benke said. “It’s literally, truly, medically difficult for kids who have undergone this kind of trauma to learn. Their brains are constantly on alert and on the defensive.”

Despite the difficulties and occasional setbacks, Thomas-Benke and Freeman enjoy seeing their students continue to push themselves to learn English, hoping to one day feel fully integrated into life in the U.S.

“They’re very motivated,” Thomas-Benke said. “They want to become Americans and get completely into American culture. The desire is there and the work ethic is there.”

Sophomore Kanish Patel reads the newspaper to the class. The students each take turns reading the articles and paragraphs. When the students are done reading, they call on each other to read the next paragraph. (Photo by Riley McCrackin)

New Land, New Opportunities

Janitor Sandy Sebastian moved from the Philippines to the U.S. in hopes to provide better life for her family

After the final bell rings and the students are let out, Sandy Sebastian starts her work as a substitute nighttime janitor for FHSD after completing a full-time lead machine operator job at Rx Systems. This heavy workload is all in the hope of providing a better life for her family by sending money back to them in the Philippines.

“I’m used to working hard,” Sebastian, who was a principal of a school in her country of origin said. “I always make sure it’s done. And not only done, it should be done well.”

Sebastian moved to the United States in April 2008 to help support her family financially. In the Philippines, Sebastian’s job as a teacher and school principal only left her with around $300 per month. This meant that she could not send her daughter to college and support her son and the rest of her family, so she moved to the U.S. and started to send money back to the Philippines.

“She puts in her hard work,” nighttime custodian Terezee Stewart said. “She’s very nice, a people person.”

When Sandy first arrived in the U.S., she worked as a nanny in New Jersey for two years. She then moved to Missouri and started working for Rx Systems and got promoted to a lead machine operator. And for six years, Sebastian has been working for the district as a substitute janitor. She recalls that she has never called in during all of her time working here.

“She benefits the workplace by filling in when others aren’t here,” lead custodian Jeff Tindell said. “She’s a dependable custodian. You can always count on her to do anything you ask her to do.”

Sebastian originally applied for a tourist visa. She was approved right away after her interview and received a 10 years multiple visa. This meant that she could go back and forth from the United States and the Philippines for 10 years. Sebastian later applied for permanent residence in 2012 and received it.

“Of course I am proud to be an American,” Sebastian said. “It is really hard to be an American. It takes a lot time, money, patience, determination and strength to handle this stress. It’s really an achievement to be an American.”

“It takes time to do it and it’s a lot of work,” Sebastian said. “I think about trying to be here so I can have more money and send more money [back to the Philippines.]”

Results from Sebastian’s hard work are starting to show, as her daughter arrived in the U.S. in 2013 with a green card and then went back to finish school. Her daughter then returned to the U.S. in September 2016 and brought along her brother, Sebastian’s son. Sebastian’s daughter now works at Mercy Hospital and her son attends Barnwell Middle School, where he is an honor roll student.

“I’m in the process of getting my mom,” Sebastian said. “So she can help me because I work days here and nights, make my son breakfast in the morning, make lunch and I have to make dinner. And then I have to work again. I’m not used to having kids for eight years now. It’s really really hard right now, but I have to do it.”

Even though she has faced language and social barriers, long workdays and little sleep, Sebastian is still proud to say she is an American.

“Of course I am proud to be an American,” Sebastian said. “It is really hard to be an American. It takes a lot time, money, patience, determination and strength to handle this stress. It’s really an achievement to be an American.”

One Incredible Goal

Nahed Chapman New American Academy prepares refugee students for American public schools

Tenth grader Abdulkadir Hussein strides into the middle and high school building to start his day and is greeted with a smile and a “good morning” from each teacher. A few steps into the hall, he starts to walk under the many different flags of countries that line way above him. As the flags hang proudly from the ceiling, some are reflected down Hussein’s left arm in seven of his many colorful, beaded bracelets, each showcasing a different country’s flag.

With the representation of many countries in his daily wear, Hussein still understands his opportunity for education lies in the country of one bracelet specifically: the United States. Among the other 600-plus students from about 50 different countries in the Nahed Chapman New American Academy located on South Grand, Hussein has a past unique to most in the St. Louis metro area, but common among his classmates.

With a Swahili mother, Somali father, three brothers and two sisters, Hussein is not alone in his transition to living in the United States after leaving Mombasa, Kenya. Their “normal” life on the other side of the Atlantic was stricken with violence. As the fighting arose, Hussein’s family confronted new obstacles from thievery to death. Hussein began to face these horrors first-hand. He was robbed and stabbed, leaving scars that show the injuries he obtained from the violence there.

“Our homes, the thieves would come through the window and take everything, and if you said ‘Don’t take anything,’ they could kill,” Hussein said. “That is why we had trouble. It is horrible and terrible.”

Tenth grader Abdulkadir Hussein asks a question to his math teacher on Feb. 14. Students at the Nahed Chapman New American Academy take classes that all high schoolers would take, as well as extra English classes. The administration at the school make the day as close to an average day for American teenagers as possible to help them adapt into American society quickly. (Photo by Sam Cary)

In the Nahed Chapman New American Academy, all teachers and staff understand that the school is full of students from different backgrounds. Backgrounds that can include many students receiving little to no education due to their country being in turmoil or due to the conditions of refugee camps. Either way, because of these circumstances, the teachers all realize they must respect their students’ past experiences. While regarding all their students’ previous struggles, the teachers guide the students to learn what is acceptable in American society and schools.

With the student population speaking more than 25 different languages, the academy is surrounded with the richness of culture. For example, Hussein himself can speak six languages, including Somali, Swahili, Spanish and English. With such a variety of language and cultured atmosphere, students and teachers alike are able to face the exciting and challenging task ahead: preparing for American public school within two years.

Inspiring Aspirations

The academy is presented with the task of teaching immigrants, refugees and all ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) students the English language and culture. To do this, many elementary teachers use visuals, speak slowly and pull small groups, among other things. Students must also go through transition lessons to prepare for their next school which includes small tasks, such as opening a lock for a locker or learning to enter lunch numbers into a computer. Many of these daily tasks for American students must be learned by the Nahed Chapman New American Academy students as a lot of the students haven’t worked with numbers before.

Regardless of some students having little schooling, they have the same graduation requirements on top of three English classes and transition lessons. Even with all these classes, students may only stay two years at the academy before having to integrate into American public schools, and with a constant increase in students, the time cannot be extended.

Within these two years, students must undergo a complete transition including learning about proper hygiene, riding busses and making friends.

“Our students are every bit as capable as every other student in this country,” assistant principal Brandon Clay said. “They have all the abilities to succeed. They have the capabilities to do what everyone else in America can do and I think that that is vital that every single person knows that here.”

Doubling Enrollment

At the beginning of the school year, there were approximately 300 students, including Hussein. When the presidential election neared in November, the school’s enrollment abruptly doubled to 600 students due to concern for policy changes. Because of this, the academy had to quickly adapt.

As more students arrived, some classes had up to 50 students until more teachers could be hired. On top of that, the middle school upper floor had to be renovated to provide more classrooms, and middle school students had to eat breakfast in the auditorium since there was not space for all the students to eat breakfast in the cafeteria. This increased enrollment has also stretched already thin resources even thinner. Many students don’t even have writing utensils and paper, which leaves teachers trying to provide supplies with little to no funding from the district. Yet, even with a lack of staff and little funding, the faculty still stays optimistic and continues to work nonstop for their students.

Facing Unusual Challenges

Social workers are made available to help students who have faced trauma and 100 percent of students at the school qualify for free and reduced lunch. With 90 percent of students never having been in school or only having interrupted schooling, the students are facing very different learning experiences in the United States than in their last country. Whether living in a refugee camp and receiving no education, or obtaining only sporadic education, they all have a bit to learn before assimilating into American public schools.

One of the issues to occur was shoving in the lunch line.

“Lunch can get to be a little crazy, especially when kids first start here,” academic instructional coordinator Kelly Moore said. “They tend to fight to get to the front of the line. We learned the reason they do that is because if you’re not first in many of these refugee camps, if they’re not the front of the line, they may not be able to eat. That’s part of the process, trying to get them to a place where they feel comfortable enough to not be at the front of the line.”

While the transition to the U.S. can be a drastic one for many, seemingly small efforts make a big difference for students in helping them get comfortable here.

“They will serve rice and beans every day,” Moore said. “That is such a staple of their diet in the Middle East that they created a special menu for school. We will have pizza and chicken and all the other things the other schools have but we will also have rice and beans, every day. When they come here there is so much change and so much different that it helps. There’s food they eat and are used to it.”

Emerging Opportunities

Atop of small comforts like food, the school has developed a few programs to help some students adjust and channel any anger from the situations they have come to face, be it their previous country’s struggles or be it the difficulty in learning a new language and culture.

For students who may require a bit of extra guidance, a full bi-lingual staff is available in the office, with people who speak Spanish, Arabic, Swahili, Pahli and French. To help students adapt to their new environment, some extracurricular activities have also been started. For Hussein, the soccer team is a good outlet to play and work hard with his friends. Some of the other activities include a new a basketball program, intramurals and soon-to-be Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts.

Another group beginning is an art therapy group to help students channel their feelings. The art that these students, along with all other students, create displays a message to all. This message of love and hope is grown throughout the students’ artwork, which hangs throughout the hallways of the elementary school.

“The teachers try to incorporate into their reading passages, their writing and their art about diversity and community,” Moore said. “I think it’s a beautiful thing and they come from all different places, but they’re in the same situation: not knowing a lot of English and this new environment and getting them to connect to all the kids that speak their language.”

Everlasting Friendships

As this hope grows and students begin to flourish, new friendships form and a theme of peace, diversity and trust is born.

“Watching those friendships form is fabulous,” high school ESOL teacher Keary Ritchie said. “Where in the world would you have a girl from the streets of Honduras become close friends with a girl from Pakistan? Where does that happen? That’s a really beautiful thing to watch, arm in arm walking down the hall. It’s just about reconciliation. Watching them reconcile what they had going on before and learning to love one another and become friends.”

With students exploring their futures, and teachers working diligently to prepare their students, the future can be bright for both the students and the society they will have a part in.

“I feel like this school is a good representation of what society could be because you’ve got people here who are overcoming tremendous obstacles and they are being successful and they are getting along with each other,” Moore said. “They are getting along with people who are completely different from them and come from different backgrounds and I feel like that would be a good lesson for everybody out there and that, you know, we can all get along and we can all be successful.”

A 9th grade student smiles after getting an answer correct. Students come into the Nahed Chapman New American Academy at various levels. They get to attend the school for two years, or until they can adapt successfully into American society. Some students have no concept of numbers when they first get to the school, but the staff is able to get the students where they want to be. (Photo by Sam Cary)

Preparing for Success

To help each student be successful once the two years are up, the high school students are taken on both college trips and visits to regular public schools to help adjust to what life will be like away from the Nahed Chapman New American Academy. Meanwhile, younger students are taken on tours of the next public school they will attend.

“We do field trips and college tours,” high school counselor Danielle Carter said. “We like to do things they will experience at other schools...Coming from there with PTSD and high anxiety and a constant state of shock everyday, they need to know everything up front. We like to give them as much exposure as we can.”

While many students are focusing on just preparing for their next school, or on earning their high school diploma, Hussein sees the opportunity before him as something even greater.

“It helps us to learn more and to get more in the future,” Hussein said. “For me, when I come to school, I need to have a respect and we need to help each other. I help the people, and I like the school and will leave to another school...I need to finish all my school, to go to college, and to get a better future.”

For Hussein, college will be the key to success. After integrating into American schools and society, he plans to return to his country and give back.

“I look to become a police officer,” Hussein said. “I need to know more about the police officers here and what it is like. I need to be better for them, for my country. The school helps. If you become nice to the teachers and to the people, this school helps to be a good person and learn more English and learn more you need to know. I’m not thinking about anything else.”

Best of Both Worlds

Sophomore Selena Wang and freshman Silvana Wang live with a mixture of influences from both Chinese and American culture

Each culture is a world of its own. Immigration often leads to two worlds coming together, which in turn leads to melding both cultures to get the best out of both of them. Selena and Silvana Wang have faced their task throughout their lives as their parents immigrated here from China in the 1990s.

“I’m glad I have two cultures because, otherwise, my life would be super boring,” Selena said. “I get to experience two different things. Some people have to go to a different place to experience different cultures, but I don’t have to because I have two in my home.”

The family moved from Guangzhou, China, to New York City, and then to St. Charles in 2005. In their time here, they have maintained their culture in a few ways. They speak Chinese at home. They eat traditional Chinese food. They celebrate the Chinese New Year. The culture is very family-focused, and because of that, they often visit their family members who live close by.

“There’s an importance to spend time with family,” Selena and Silvana’s mother, Jin Yu, said. “It’s the thing I really like [about] Christmas and Thanksgiving. We spend it with all the family and have dinner. With the family we always have help and it’s a way we can have more time spent with family.”

Selena and Silvana Wang pose with their family before a dinner. The Chinese culture has different traditions than American culture and Wangs’ parents want their daughters to experience both. (Photo submitted)

While Chinese culture is more reserved, the American mindset values individuality and expression. With its influences, Selena has the option of defending her wants and beliefs at home, rather than solely sticking to what her parents think. This means not only voicing her opinion, but also listening to her parents’ point of view. Through this, everything from going to sleepovers and, for Selena, joining the school’s lacrosse team, have found a place in their lives. This might not have happened without the American influences present here.

“If we lived where my parents grew up, there’d be more strictness,” Silvana said. “It’s more fun here in America.”

Living with both cultures means figuring out how to make those two worlds coexist in harmony. With each generation comes change, and when there are two cultures to pick from, that simply means a wider variety of ideals and values to sift through, until only the best are left.

“I’ve had [both cultures] with me so for so long: it’s kind of just a habit now,” Selena said. “I wouldn’t want to lose it because it just wouldn’t be me if I didn’t have that.”

Nelly Degraw poses with daughters Hannah and Madeline. Nelly Degraw was the first member of her family to graduate high school and go to college. (Photo submitted)

A Place in This Country

Nelly Degraw faced adversity growing up biracial from a foreign-born family and it shaped her future

The Civil Rights act was signed into place in 1964, prohibiting discrimination based on someone’s race, religion, national origin or gender. But before this act was signed, and even after that time, those who were biracial, like Nelly DeGraw, foreign-born or had a diverse heritage, faced prejudices.

Nelly’s family moved to the U.S. from Venezuela in the late 1950s. Before that, her family had lived in Russia, moving to Venezuela to escape the pressure of World War II. Once her family had moved to the U.S., she was born later in the 1960s. She was the only one in her family that was born in the U.S. and, on top of that, the only one with both Russian and Venezuelan blood.

“There were a lot of difficulties I faced growing up in my school, a Catholic private school, and in my own home, too,” Nelly said. “My grandfather hated that I was Hispanic. It was hard to try and overcome the feeling that I didn’t belong.”

While Nelly grew up in a diverse, immigrant-heavy neighborhood in Chicago, being a biracial U.S. citizen from a foreign-born family set her apart. It was hard for her to fit in with any specific group because she was a part of three very different cultures.

“You have areas that are Spanish, Latin and then you have European people,” Nelly said. “There were little neighborhoods that were Polish, Ukrainian, Russian. For me, the issue was always that I was from both. I was a mix of the two. Sometimes, Spanish people don’t like people from other cultures or Europeans don’t like people from other cultures, so I felt like I had to blend in with whoever I was with. If I knew people were racist against Spanish, then I wouldn’t let on that I knew Spanish. In my family, I felt different because I was the only American. I never really fit in anywhere.”

Nelly speaks four languages, English being her third. Having spoken mostly Spanish and Russian in her home, she had to learn English once she was enrolled in school, influencing the stereotype that those who can’t speak English were considered dumb.

“She had to learn a lot of it on the spot because her family never really spoke English to her,” Nelly’s daughter, sophomore Madeline DeGraw, said. “I think it must’ve been difficult the earlier years at school to try and have to deal with that, especially since she had to learn what they were expecting her to learn and an entirely new language as well. I think that made her feel very isolated.”

Though she loved her family’s history, growing up facing prejudice made her want to save her daughters from that same feeling.

“When we were born, she didn’t want to have us listed as having any other heritage other than white on our birth certificate because of a lot of stuff she dealt with as she was growing up,” Nelly’s other daughter, sophomore Hannah DeGraw, said. “There were a lot of race cliques when she was younger, so she struggled finding a place to fit in, and she thought growing up biracial would set us back.”

After growing up in an environment she didn’t feel comfortable in, she decided to teach cultural acceptance to her daughters so they wouldn’t treat people the way she was treated.

“Just the way she views race has become a lot different from when she was growing up to now,” Hannah said. “When we were little, she definitely taught us about race more. My sister and I didn’t grow up in a predominately white neighborhood, so we were around a lot of other races. She would say things like, ‘You can’t do this because it’s considered disrespectful,’ so that we would know what was right and what was wrong.”

Despite facing adversity growing up, Nelly developed pride for the U.S. while still appreciating both of her heritages. She joined the military as a Russian linguist, utilizing her language skills to translate for the U.S.

“I was really proud to be here enough that I was interested in defending [the U.S.],” Nelly said. “This country offers so much. You’re free. The law protects us here, and we are very diverse. I don’t think foreigners are as welcome in other countries as they are here. We are an ethnically diverse group of people.”

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