Urbanization of Industrialized SocietiesRyan Hussey
Mary Robets Rinehart was an American author who understood the complexity of class consciousness. She realized that people know when someone is of a higher class, and that person is usually in a higher class because they have more money. Both classes may hate each other simply because one thinks they are better, and the other wants what they do not have. Mary struggled with money after her family lost all their money, which turned her to writing to make money. She was a very influential writer in the early 1900's.
Class Conscious- First used by Karl Marx it means an individual's sense of class differentiation.
Now that many families were moving to the cities, it changed the dynamics of a family. The English Parliament banned using pauper children, without their consent, in 1802. But, children were still a large part of the work force during the Industrial Revolution. Families would come continue to work together after moving to an urban area. Then, the Factory Act of 1833 installed inspectors to enforce laws and make sure working conditions were safe. This law decreased the amount of children working in the factories. The result was less kids were working with their parents now in urban areas.
Robert Owen was a Welsh social reformer who was against young children working in factories. He said using children under 10 was harmful to the kids, and not beneficial to the factories. Robert Owen pushed for utopian societies, one even in the US. He owned a cotton mill himself which is why he understood the dangers of children working there.
Now that families were not working together the concept of separate spheres was becoming more popular. This idea was popular in North America and Europe, emerging during the Industrial Revolution. Women stopped working as much as were in charge of domestic jobs, such as, cooking, cleaning, and taking care of the kids. In the late 1800's is when the "gender roles" were put in places, along with the stereotypes "women belong in the kitchen" and "this is a man's job".
Separate spheres is when there is gender division of labor with the wife at home as the mom and homemaker, and the husband is at work as the wage earner.
The Mines Act of 1842 helped improve the lives of women and children who worked in the mines. It prohibited underground work for women and girls, as well as boys under 10. This helped improve safety for women and children, who were taken advantage of.
Not all were happy with the Industrial Revolution. People called luddites attacked factories in Northern England in 1811 becuase they felt these machines were taking away their jobs. They would break the machines becuase they felt they were losing on business to these factories.