Causes of the Civil War By Gina Zhu

1820- Missouri Compromise

Maine became a free state and Missouri became a slave state which balance out the power of the slave and free states. The states above the Missouri compromise (36, 30) line will be free states expect for Missouri and the states under the Missouri compromise will be slave states.

1832 to 1833-South Carolina Nulification Crisis

The South doesn't like how the north was getting rich with of their money, so Calhoun devised the nullification Theory. The nullification was for people to have the right to nullify a federal law if it is unconstitutional. South Carolina threatened to leave the union if the nullification act wasn't passed, but Jackson threaten South Carolina by invading them if they tried to leave..

1846- Wilmot Proviso

The Wilmot Proviso was a bill that states any part gained from Mexico will be a free state. The South didn't like this bill because it will give the free states more power, but the bill was never passed.

Compromise of 1850

Clay’s compromise contained provisions to appease Northerners as well as Southerners. To satisfy the North, the compromise provided that California be admitted to the Union as a free state. To satisfy the South, the compromise proposed a new and more effective fugitive slave law. The Compromise of 1850 also gave Popular sovereignty- the right of residents of a territory to vote for or against slavery.

1851 to 1852- Uncle Tom's Cabin

The novel published in 1852, delivered the message that slavery was not just a political contest, but also a great moral struggle. The Northern abolitionists increased their protests against the Fugitive Slave Act, while Southerners criticized the book as an attack on the South as a whole. The furor over Uncle Tom’s Cabin had barely begun to settle when a new controversy over slavery drew heated debates.

1854- Kansas & Nebraska Act

Douglas introduced a bill in Congress to divide the area into two territories: Nebraska in the north and Kansas in the south. If passed, it would repeal the Missouri Compromise and establish popular sovereignty for both territories. Congressional debate over the bill was bitter. Some Northern congressmen saw the bill as part of a plot to turn the territories into slave states; but nearly 90 percent of Southern congressmen voted for the bill. The bitterness spilled over into the general population, which deluged Congress with petitions both for and against the bill and gave more tension between the north and the south.

1857- Dred Scott case

Dred Scott was brought to the north with his owner to live for 4 years but was brought back to the south. Scott's owner died so he began a lawsuit to gain his freedom. He claim to be free because he lived in the north for several years.

1858- Lincoln &a Douglas debates

Lincoln challenged Douglas to a series of debates on the issue of slavery. Douglas wanted popular sovereign because he thought slavery would fade on its own but Lincoln doubted that slavery would cease to spread without legislation outlawing it in the territories. These debates put Lincoln on the map, many people from the south hated Lincoln.

1859- John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry

Brown led his five sons into Harpers Ferry, Virginia. His aim was to seize the federal arsenal there, distribute the captured arms to slaves in the area, and start a general slave uprising. Brown was executed for treason in the south but the north saw him as a hero.

Elcection of 1860

Lincoln won the election of 1860 because the democrats were split. The south did not like Lincoln so he got no votes from the south. The South decided to leave the Union because Lincoln won which led to the Civil War


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