Mountain Biome Northern Andes, Colombia, South America

Climate of The northern Andes

Average Rainfall- 208 inches per year

Maximum Rainfall- 27.4 inches in May

Minimum Rainfall- 4.4 inches in January

Average Temperature- 17°C, 63°F

Maximum Mean Temperature- 21°C, 70°F in September

Minimum Mean Temperature- 12°C, 54°F in July

A somewhat tropical climate in the Northern Andes leads to precipitation nearly every day, with consistent temperatures throughout the year of around 20°C, or 68°F. Winds are generally gentle from the east.


Net Primary Productivity

The mountain biome is home to many animal and plant populations due to the many different climates of mountain biomes. Mountains make up a minimal amount of the earth's surface. The inflated rainfall totals of the Northern Andes are higher than most other biomes, due to the near everyday rainfall.

Soil Quality

Soil quality of mountain biomes is not conducive to growth of plants or farming. The only farming that can be done on mountains is terrace farming, which uses multiple levels of crops that are stair shaped.

Invasive and Endangered


The American bullfrog was introduced to the Andes from North America as a food source, and now it threatens the native population of prey.


The spectacled bear is the last remaining short-faced bear species. The bears have lost habitats due to logging and have been poached by trophy-hunters who wanted to claim dominance over other poachers. These hunters have diminished over the last few years.

Animals in the Biome


The vicuña is a relative of the llama that lives in the alpine areas of the Andes. The animals are able to handle cold temperatures due to its thick coat. Vicuñas use the grassy plains to feed on in the day time and spend the nights on the slopes of the mountains

Andean Condor

These birds are scavengers that feed on large animals in the Andes. They are massive birds that live in low densities throughout the Andes. The condors are able to travel long distances to feed on llamas, alpacas, and guanacos, all creatures that live within the Andes.


The guanaco is another animal that is similar to the llama. They are able to survive in packs by running quickly through the rocky terrain located in the Andes. The animals are also excellent swimmers and can escape predators rather easily.

Plants in the Biome


These leaves were introduced to the highlands of the Andes. They are food for many of the animals previously mentioned.

Polylepis Forest

These trees are extremely tough and can live in nearly any condition. They also contain some of the birds that live in the Andes.

Wild Potatoes

These potatoes are able to survive in the harsh conditions of the alpine region of the Andes. These potatoes could be farmed in a region where many other plants cannot last.


Created with images by jstarj - "torres del paine south america mountains" • Michele Dorsey Walfred - "American BullFrog" • HOerwin56 - "bear spectacled bear zoo"

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