Age of Inquiry Madison Mcglynn

The Renaissance
During the Renaissance, art, literature, science, and technology began to come into play. Most of the art was in fluenced by Rome and Greek.
Jhoannes Gutenberg was a German artist who invented groundbreaking technology. The technology he created was the printing press.
The Mona Lisa was one of Leonardo Da Vincis' works. Leonardo was also an inventor and a scientist. One of Leonardos' first paintings was Virgin on the Rocks.
Michelangelo was famous for the ceiling painting on the Sistine Chapel. Michelangelo also sculpted David and the Pietà. Michelangelo is one of the most greatest artists and sculptures in history.
Galileo was a leading figure of the scientific revolution. Galileo applied mathematics to nature. He also laid the foundation for mechanics.

works cited for Renaissance: "Galileo." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017. Pictures were done on here.

Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation started in 16th century. European religious movement that rebelled against the power of the Catholic Church.The Reformation's followers protested and broke away from Catholicism, becoming known as Protestants
Martin Luther was the founder of the Protestantism.Martin Luther brought on the Reformation by demanding changes in the Catholic Church.
The Church was increasing power came increasing wealth, which some Christians believed had led to the Church's corruption and spiritual bankruptcy. The Church used the bible as a way to get money because at that time many people couldn't read.
John Calvin was a supporter of Martin Luther, he was from France. Published a book with religious beliefs in 1536. John also started the Calvinist church which believed in god determined who would gain salvation. The lifestyle in the his church was strict and disciplined.
Elizabeth I was queen of England from 1558 through 1603. Elizabeth tried to create a compromise between the catholic church and the new Protestant beliefs. She was protestant but allowed Catholic to continue their practice.

Works cited for Protestant Reformation:Raichelle, Allen. "Reformation and Counter-Reformation." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017. also the Protestant Reformation packet

The Counter-Reformation stared in 1545 in response to the threat of protestant reformation and the challenges to the churches authority. They made the council of Trent to help guide the counter-reformation.
The Council's major accomplishment for Catholics leaders was inspirational, as it sparked the enthusiasm for reclaiming the hearts of Europe's churchgoers. Unlike today, the Catholic Church controlled military forces that helped stop the spread of Protestantism and take back Europe.
The goals of the Counter-Reformation were to strengthen the Catholic Church and to prevent people form convert to protestant churches. The three actions taken by the church during the counter- reformation were the Jesuits, inquisition, and the index of banned books.
The church took the Counter-reformation to a whole new level with its punishments. Some examples of the Inquisitions punishments for heresy were fire, torture, chocking till dead, banishment.
The first Index of Forbidden books was written by Pope Paul IV and it was published in 1559. Any book that challenged the catholic church was banned. The Catholic Church feared the printing press could give more people power to read books that threatened the church.

Worked cited for Counter- Reformation: The Protestant Reformation Packet ,Raichelle, Allen. "Reformation and Counter-Reformation." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 13 Feb. 2017.

The Scientific Revolution
The Scientific Revolution followed the Renaissance and was a time of great change in thought. Disciplines such as biology, physics, astronomy, and chemistry all became separate areas of study,
Galen was a geek physician who learned about anatomy through studying apes and pigs. Galen was forbidden by Roman law to dissect human copses. His knowledge was limited to what he could learn from other animals.
The "father" of geometry and the theoretician who provided the foundation for modern science, René Descartes sought to discover a foundation for absolute human knowledge. Descartes ushered in the modern philosophical era by separating the working of the human mind not only from the mechanical actions of the human body, but from all of the natural world.
Nicholas Copernicus ignited the scientific revolution and created a rift between science and religion. Although he was never charged with heresy, after his death the Catholic Church banned his major work.
Blaise Pascal was mathematician of the first rank, a philosopher and religious thinker who set the foundations for existentialism.Although fully committed to the project and principles of science, Pascal also anticipated the spiritual situation of the modern world.

works cited for Scientific Revolution: The Scientific Revolution packet."Blaise Pascal." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 14 Feb. 2017.Hutchinson, Jennifer. "Nicholas Copernicus." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 14 Feb. 2017"René Descartes." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 14 Feb. 2017.

Believing in his right to rule, Louis XIV broke French laws to establish himself as an absolute monarch. Appropriately named himself the Sun King, he radiated power and magnificence. During his reign, he not only expanded France's borders but also brought theater, fashion, refined manners, and art alive. While he reigned primarily during the 17th century, Louis XIV set the foundation for France's political and cultural in the 18th century.
Absolutism was not accepted in all countries. In England, King James I and his son Charles I were strong believers in the right of kings. Both attempted to rule without interference from Parliament. However, many Protestants in England believed both men wanted to restore Catholicism as the state religion and treated anything they proposed with suspicion. In 1629, Charles dissolved Parliament and ruled for the next 11 years mostly as an absolute monarch.
Peter forced Russians to adopt Western manners, made the men shave their beards, and demanded that they wear European-style clothing. Peter expanded Russia's borders, built a navy, and put the Russian Orthodox Church under his control. New rankings for nobility were established, and Peter imposed new taxes. Peter's absolutism was based not on religious arguments, but on the need to modernize Russia.
For more than 30 years, Catherine II ruled Russia with energy and flair that she stamped an entire epoch with her name. She is admired as Catherine the Great by most Russians because the country became strong under her rule to threaten the other great powers, and her brilliant court was conversant with the most interesting cultural developments in Europe. She identified her own interests with those of the Russian state and worked without respite for its glorification.
Absolute monarchs played an important role in the creation of modern European states by increasing the power of the government and by making themselves into the national image of the state. The rise of absolutism was resisted by some groups with different levels of success, and power-sharing varied from country to country.

Works Cited for Absolutism:Watts, Tim J. "The Rise of Absolutism." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 14 Feb. 2017.

The Enlightenment
English scientist Isaac Newton laid an i foundation for the Enlightenment with his explanation of gravitation and three laws of motion. Newton's contributions provided a framework for understanding the motions of not only cannon balls but also the motions of the planets, comets, and other heavenly bodies.
The Enlightenment thinkers also took inspiration from Newton's friend John Locke, a leading 17th-century philosopher. Offering a "scientific" model of mind, he proposed that all humans begin life as blank slates and slowly absorb impressions through their senses. This concept had radical political implications, particularly in nations ruled by aristocrats and tradition, as it suggested that all humans are equal at birth.
Although Enlightenment thinkers were critical of monarchy and its excesses as well as of aristocratic privileges, they enjoyed the patronage of many rulers who were considered "enlightened absolutists," including Frederick II of Prussia. Enlightenment thinkers encouraged these rulers to use their power to heighten social justice in their realms. Frederick II, for example, allowed non-nobles to become military officers and government officials, and he also abolished serfdom on Crown lands.
Holy Roman emperor Joseph II. Joseph created a universal education system that increased the pool from which to draw government bureaucrats.
The ideas and achievements of the Enlightenment have had enormous consequences, including the establishment of the United States as a democratic republic, the French Revolution, and continuing demands for human rights. The age of political revolutions led to conservative backlashes, as well as artistic backlashes in such movements in arts and letters as Romanticism, which cultivated emotion over reason.

Works Cited for the Enlightenment: Nadis, Fred. "The Enlightenment." World History: The Modern Era, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Accessed 14 Feb. 2017.

Created By
Maddy McGlynn


Created with images by dbking - "Joan of Arc" • guy_dugas - "st gatien cathedral cloitre de la psalette" • stux - "library three graces" • takomabibelot - "Newspaper Printing Bas Relief On A Seattle Times Square Doorway Lintel, 414 Olive Way (Seattle, WA)" • Unsplash - "mona lisa painting art" • apenny - "michelangelo" • shizhao - "Galileo" • Tim Green aka atoach - "Bingley Church" • katermikesch - "martin luther protestant reformation" • LoggaWiggler - "ulm cathedral building church" • Biblioteca Rector Machado y Nuñez - ""Juan Calvino"." • Rev Stan - "Queen Elizabeth I statue" • BitBoy - "Church" • Jeff Pioquinto, SJ - "Jesuit Vow Cross" • TimothyJ - "Church" • sarahstierch - "Saint-Maurice" • quinet - "Burned at the stake" • D.C.Atty - "index of forbidden books" • HerryLawford - "Leeds Castle"

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