Skeletal System Charlotte Gambrell-D Blk- March 31 2017

During This Presentation Fun Little Facts Will Be Scattered Throughout!!!

What's in a Bone?

A typical bone has a dense and tough outer layer. Next is a layer of spongy bone, which is lighter and slightly flexible. In the middle of some bones is a jelly-like bone marrow, where new cells are constantly being produced for blood.

Various X-rays of the bones.

Bones are the most important organ in the skeletal system. Without our bones you would be skin, blood, and nerves.

Types of broken bones

Ligaments

Ligaments are bundles of connective tissue that connect one bone to an adjacent bone. The basic building blocks of a ligament are collagen fibers. These fibers are very strong, flexible, and resistant to damage from pulling or compressing stresses. Collagen fibers are usually arranged in parallel bundles which help multiply the strength of the individual fibers. The bundles of collagen are attached to the outer covering that surrounds all bones, the periosteum.

The ligament holds the bone together.

How bones work with others...

The skeletal system works with the circulatory system to produce blood. It also works with the digestive system. Your teeth are actually apart of the skeletal system and they help to digest food!

Tendons

Tendons are very vital for the free movement of our body. Most often we see that people who work more with their right hand complain of pain due to exertion. Over stress is known to be the main cause of injury to tendons which can be treated by rest.

The tendon is white

How Many Bones?

If you where wondering how many bones the adult body has, I can tell you! The adult body has 206 bones. Can anyone guess how many bones you are born with?

You are actually born with 270 bones! And the reason that you have 206 when you are an adult is because they fuse together as you grow.

What kind of diseases affect the bones?

Osteoporosis is a prevalent disease, particularly among the elderly, resulting in the loss of bone tissue. In osteoporosis, bone loses calcium, becomes thinner and may disappear completely. Arthritis is a group of more than 100 inflammatory diseases that damage joints and their surrounding structures. Arthritis can attack joints, joint capsules, the surrounding tissue, or throughout the body. It usually affects the joints of the neck, shoulders, hands, lower back, hips, or knees.

Joints

Anywhere in our body, where two or more bones come together, we have a joint. There are between 250-350 joints in the human body. Some of these joints are more obvious than others. We all know where our knee, ankle and shoulder joints are, but did you know that there are around 30 joints in our hands, many joints in our feet and even joints in our skull? Joints provide mechanical support, and in most cases allow movement.

These are all the types of joints

The Bones in Your Body

(Some of them)

The cranium supports the structures of the face and provides a protective cavity for the brain.

This is the cranium and all parts are labeled

The clavicle is located directly above the first rib and it acts as a strut to keep the scapula in place so that the arm can hang freely. The humerus is the long bone in the upper arm. It is located between the elbow joint and the shoulder. At the elbow, it connects primarily to the ulna. The scapula (shoulder blade) is a strange-looking triangular bone that's slightly curved. It houses a socket into which the head of the humerus fits to form the shoulder joint. When at rest, the scapula must sit at the correct height on the trunk as well as the correct distance from the spine. This sets the stage for arm movement. The sternum is a long and narrow bone that forms the foundation of the rib cage and protects several vital chest organs.

The ribs partially enclose and protect the chest cavity, where many vital organs (including the heart and the lungs) are located. The rib cage is collectively made up of long, curved individual bones with joint-connections to the spinal vertebrae. The spine is made up of 24 bones, called vertebrae. Ligaments and muscles connect these bones together to form the spinal column. The spinal column gives the body form and function. The spinal column holds and protects the spinal cord, which is a bundle of nerves that sends signals to other parts of the body.

The femur, or thigh bone, is the longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the entire human body. All of the body's weight is supported by the femurs during many activities, such as running, jumping, walking, and standing.

This is a broken femur

The radius or radial bone, is one of the two large bones of the forearm, the other being the ulna. It extends from the lateral side of the elbow to the thumb side of the wrist and runs parallel to the ulna, which exceeds it in length and size.

The primary functional role of the patella is knee extension. The patella increases the leverage that the tendon can exert on the femur by increasing the angle at which it acts.

The Patella

The tibia, sometimes known as the shin bone, is the larger and stronger of the two lower leg bones. It forms the knee joint with the femur and the ankle joint with the fibula and tarsus. Many powerful muscles that move the foot and lower leg are anchored to the tibia.

This shows the tibia and the fibula.

The fibula is the long, thin and lateral bone of the lower leg. It runs parallel to the tibia, or shin bone, and plays a significant role in stabilizing the ankle and supporting the muscles of the lower leg. Compared to the tibia, the fibula is about the same length, but is considerably thinner.

Tarsals articulate above with the bones of the lower leg to form the ankle joint. The other six tarsals, tightly bound together by ligaments below the talus, function as a strong weight-bearing platform. The calcaneus, or heel bone, is the largest tarsal and forms the prominence at the back of the foot.

This is the tarsals all labeled

The metatarsal bones, or metatarsus, are a group of five long bones in the foot, located between the tarsal bones of the hind- and mid-foot and the phalanges of the toes.

Fun Facts

Teeth are considered part of the skeletal system but they are not counted as bones. Teeth are made of dentin and enamel, which is strongest substance in your body. Teeth also play a key role in the digestive system.

There are 26 bones in the human foot!

The human hand, including the wrist, has 54 bones.

The femur is the longest and strongest bone in the body.

The stapes, in the middle ear, is the smallest and lightest bone of the human skeleton.

Created By
Charlotte Gambrell
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