Cellular Respiration Project By: Malisa Martinez

1. The overall chemical formula for cellular respiration including the type of reaction. The balanced equation isC6H12O6+6O2→6CO2+6H2O+energy. The equation expressed in words would be: glucose + oxygen → carbon dioxide + water + energy

Glycolysis is the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP.

In step 1, two phosphate groups are attached to one glucose molecule, forming a new six carbon compound that has two phosphate groups. The phosphate groups are supplied by two ATP molecules, which are converted into two molecules of ADP in the process.

In step 2, the six carbon compound formed in step 1 is split into two three-carbon molecules glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P).

In step 3, the two molecules of G3P are oxidized and each receives a phosphate group. The product of step 3 is two new three-carbon compound molecules. The oxidation of G3P is accompanied by the reduction of two molecules of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH.

In step 4, the phosphate groups which were added in step 1 and step 3 are removed from the three-carbon compounds formed in step 3. This reaction produces two pyruvic acid molecules. Each phosphate group is combined with an ADP molecule to make an ATP molecule. Since a total of four phosphate groups were added in step 1 and step 3, four molecules are ATP are produce in the end.

The Krebs cycle is the series of reactions that go round and round releasing electrons which will be used to phosphorylate ADP to produce ATP. It takes place in the mitochondria - specifically in the fluid filled interior called the matrix. It is fuelled mostly by glucose metabolism outside the organelle, but fatty acids can also feed into it.

The electron transport chain is a series of oxidation-Reduction in which electrons are passed from carrier molecules down the chain to ultimately form ATP. The electron transport chain is an energy converter, transforming the chemical energy to the energy of a H+ gradient. As electrons flow along the electrochemical gradient, some of the energy is used by each complex to pump H+ ions from the mitochondrial matrix to the inter-membrane space. These Hydrogen ions create the electrochemical proton gradient that drives them back across the inner membrane through the ATP synthase complex. ATP synthase uses energy of H+ flow (electrical energy) to synthesize ATP from ADP and P. Oxidation of each NADH + H to NAD+ yields 3 ATP. Remember that oxidation is the loss of an electron and reduction is the gain of an electron. Ultimately the purpose of Cellular respiration is to make ATP. The electron transport chain carries out oxidative phosphorylation, which accounts for most of the ATP generated by cellular respiration. A phosphate group is tacked onto ADP to make ATP, using the energy formed from the electrochemical gradient. This pathway has much detail, much more than I've spoke of. I hope this helps. During each turn of the cycle, 2 carbon atoms are removed from the substrates as CO2, 4 oxidations by removal of hydrogen atoms occur, producing four molecules of reduced coenzymes (3 NADH + H+ and 1 FADH2,) and 1 ATP. The reduced coenzymes produced in the Krebs cycle are the substrates for the Electron transport chain. These are the electron carriers. Finally, we must remember that Oxygen is required for the Krebs cycle and Electron transport chain and is thus, Aerobic.

Cellular respiration is important because it provides the energy for living organisms to perform all the other necessary function to maintain life.

Source : "Why Is Cellular Respiration Important." Study.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2016.

"BioCoach Activity." Pearson - The Biology Place. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2016.

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