A) The North's expanding manufacturing economy relied on free labor in contrast to the Southern economy's dependence on slave labor. Some Northerners did not object to slavery on principle but claimed that slavery would undermine the free labor market. As a result, a free-soil movement arose that portrayed the expansion of slavery as incompatible with free labor.
The 1848 Presidential Race electoral map, no free-soil party electoral votes pictured because they didn’t win any. (candidate: Martin Van Buren)
The 1852 Presidential Race electoral map, once again the Free-Soil Party did not receive any votes.
Abraham Lincoln was not an abolitionist, but he did not support the growth of slavery as he felt it was a threat to free labor.
"Free labor has the inspiration of hope; pure slavery has no hope." -Abraham Lincoln
B) African American and White abolitionists, although a minority in the North, mounted a highly visible campaign against slavery, presenting moral arguments against the institution, assisting slaves' escapes, and sometimes expressing a willingness to use violence to achieve their goals.
Fredrick Douglass was a former slave who escaped and then became an abolitionist. He spoke to people about the true horrors of slavery and he based his arguments on religion and the individual rights of all people.
Harriet Tubman became famous because of her involvement in the Civil War as an armed spy and her role in the Underground Railroad which helped escaped slaves reach the North.
John Brown led the famous raid on an arsenal in Harper's Ferry. His goal was to arm slaves and lead them in a revolt against their Southern masters.
C) Defenders of slavery based their arguments on racial doctrines, the view that slavery was a positive social good, and the belief that slavery and states' rights were protected by the Constitution.
John C. Calhoun was from South Carolina and held various government positions in his political career. He was a staunch supporter of slavery and used the Constitution to support his arguments for slavery and states rights.
Slavery was the industry that supported the economy of the South. Supporters of slavery used the fact that slavery was so lucrative as an argument supporting the institution.