What is Protein Synthesis? Well Protein Synthesis is simply just the process of making proteins. Synthesis=Make. The organelles involved in this process are the Nucleus, Ribosomes, Endoplasmic Reticulum, and the Golgi Apparatus. Animals use protein synthesis for them to have proteins and to determine what the protein will be used for in the body. This is important because the proteins made in the process are used for cell activity or the control of them.
TRANSCRIPTION- What are the steps of Transcription?
- DNA Polymerase unzips DNA.
- Uses DNA template to make an mRNA.
- mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes into the cytoplasm.
- The organelles found in or used the most are the Nucleus and the cytoplasm.
- Other molecules found in transcription are tRNA and mRNA or transfer RNA and messenger RNA.
- The rules for DNA to DNA are A=T and C=G. But the rules for DNA to RNA are different. A to U, T to A, G=C.
- This occurs in the Nucleus and it can never leave the Nucleus. mRNA can leave but has to go into the nucleus to get the DNA code.
TRANSLATION- What are the steps?
- mRNA attaches to the ribosome.
- Ribosome reads the mRNA groups in three bases.
- A tRNA molecule comes along with the right anti codon to match the mRNA codon.
- tRNA carries the amino acids and links them together with peptide bonds to make a protein.
- The organelles involved with this are the Ribosomes and Cytoplasm.
- The transfer RNA brings them together with peptide bonds to make sure they have the right ones.
- Both the tRNA and mRNA come along with the right anti codon to match each other.
- This takes place in the Cytoplasm and the Ribosomes.
What is a mutation? To simply put it, Mutations are just changes in the genetic code. (DNA). What can cause mutations are UV Radiations, Chemicals, or Bad DNA proofreading. It can lead to cancer.
- Inversion- A rearrangement in chromosomes when a part of it is reversed end to end.
- Translocation- An abnormal change in chromosomes by a rearrangement of parts by non-homologous chromosomes.
- Duplication- The production of one or more copies of a piece of DNA. The opposite of deletion.
- Addition- An addition of one or more nucleotide base pairs into DNA.
- Deletion- Any number of nucleotide bases being deleted or removed.
- Substitution- When a nucleotide base is being substituted with a different nucleotide base.
- Frame-shift Mutation- A mutation that shifts the reading frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting nucleotide.
- Point mutations- To put it simply, it is a change in one nucleotide base. Changes one amino acid.
- The worst type of mutation is Frame shift mutation because it can mess up the whole strand and amino acids change after mutation creating a different one.
- Not all mutations are bad. They have little to no impact on genes. It can be harmful if it causes a change in protein structure.