A teratogen is a substance that increases and can cause birth defects to develop. Some teratogens include radiation (x-rays too), certain drugs, and alcohol (toxins). It really depends how long the mother was exposed to the teratogen. The organ that is developing at the time that the mother was exposed to a teratogen is usually the organ that develops the birth deffect.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Fetal Alcohol System is a birth defect that is caused by the mother intaking a lot alcohol during pregnancy. FAS is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and mental retardation. It is estimated to occur in the U.S. in 1-3 infants per 1000 live births and for every child born with FAS.
It is very important for a pregnant lady to maintain anutrutios diet in order to keep a healthy fetus. One thing that is very important for a pregnant woman to have daily is folic acid. Folic acid is a vitamin B that is found in many fruits and vegetables. A pregnant woman not meeting the needs of the right amount of Folic Acid can cause the fetus to develop abnormalities of the brain or spinal cord which are known as neural tube defects.
GENETIC AND CHROMOSOMAL FACTORS
Sometimes chromosomes and genes can be abnormal. Abnormalites in chromosomes and genes can inherited from the parents. Most birth defects the r due to genetic factors usually cause more than just the obvious defect in a single body part. Many brith defects are caused by unexplained and random changes (mutations) in the genes of the child.
Sometimes when a woman has certain infections while pregnant, it can cause birth defects in the baby. it really depends on th e age of the fetus. some of the most common infections in pregnant women that can cause birth defects are ytomegalovirus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, chickenpox, toxoplasmosis (which can be transmitted in cat litter), and some others. the woman sometimes may not even know they have these infection.
Structural and functional birth defects
There are two main type/categories of birth defects; structural and functional or developmental birth defects.
Structural birth defects are related to the body, body parts, and structure. some structural with defects include: cleft lip or cleft palate, heart defects, structure of it, abnormal limbs, and neural tube defects
Functional or developmental birth defects are related to a complication with how a body part or a system of the body works/functions. Some intellectual or developmental disabilities are: nervous system or brain complications, sensory problems, metabolic disorders, and degenerative disorders
MOST COMMON BIRTH DEFECTS
- Cerebral Palsy is a disability that affects moment and posture.
- It is a physical disability and is the most common physical disability in kids.
- About 17 MILLION people live with this disability all over the world.
- There is no known cause of cerebral palsy and there is also no cure,
- Down Syndrome is a disability cause by an extra chromosome 21. Down Syndrome is also known as Trisomy 21. A child with down syndrome will have three chromosome 21s instead of two of them.
- People with this disorder have some certain physical features such as a flatter looking face than normal.
- Each year about 6,000 BABIES are born with Down Syndrome.
Missing or Abnormal Limbs
- About 1,500 babies in the US are born with upper body reductions.
- 750 babies are born with lower limb reductions each year.
- people with this disorder have trouble with normal development such as motor skills and also may need assistance with everyday activities and self care.
- To help wth this disorder, there are prosthetics, which are artificial limbs, surgery, and therapy.