Biography: He was born in Ulm, Germany on March 14, 1879. Albert Einstein was a theoretical physicist and the most famous scientist in human history. As a child, he exhibited an extraordinary curiosity for and understanding of the mysteries of science.
Contribution: He had a lot to contribute in the world of science, but his most famous work was the Special Theory of Relativity.
Juicy: The first scientific paper he wrote was at the age of 16. The paper was titled “The Investigation of the State of Aether in Magnetic Fields.”
Biography: Galileo Galilei was born in Pisa, Italy, on the 15th of February 1564, he died on the 8th of January 1642. Galileo was a ground breaking astronomer, physicist, mathematician, philosopher and inventor.
Contribution: Among his inventions were telescopes, a compass and a thermometer.
Juicy: Galileo enrolled to do a medical degree at the University of Pisa but never finished, instead choosing to study mathematics.
Urbain Le Verrier
Biography: Born at Saint-Lô in Normandy on March 11, 1811. Le Verrier was interested in Chemistry as a young student, but then changed his mind and took Astronomy . He died in Paris on Sept. 23, 1877.
Contribution: He made theoretical investigations which led to the discovery of the planet Neptune.
Juicy: He theorized that there was a second Asteroid Belt.
Biography: Clyde William Tombaugh was born on near Streator, Ill., on Feb. 4, 1906. He passed away at his home in Las Cruces, N.M., on Jan. 17, 1997.
Contribution: The discovery of the planet Pluto; (which now is considered a dwarf planet.)
Juicy: He built his own telescope at the age of 20.
Biography: Percival Lawrence Lowell was born on March 13, 1855, to a prominent, wealthy Bostonian family. On Nov. 12, 1916, at the age of 61, he died of a cerebral hemorrhage at Mars Hill.
Contribution: He made theories about the Planet X, which soon became the dwarf planet Pluto.
Juicy: His brother, Abbott Lawrence Lowell, was a president of Harvard.
Biography: Born on January 4, 1643, in Woolsthorpe, England, Isaac Newton was an established physicist and mathematician. He died on March 31, 1727, at the age of 84.
Contribution: He discovered a lot of works but his he was most famous for his law of gravitation-- as we call it Newton's law.
Juicy: He suffered two nervous breakdowns.
Biography: Born: July 23, 1928, Philadelphia, PA; Died: December 25, 2016, Princeton, NJ.
Contribution: She transformed the world of Physics by showing that galaxies are immersed in vast clouds dark matter.
Juicy: She wrote a children's book titled "My Grandmother Is an Astronomer" in the hopes that other children will experience some of the joy she feels watching the night skies.
Edwin Powell Hubble
Biography: Born on November 20, 1889, Marshfield, MO. Died on September 28, 1953, San Marino, CA.
Contribution: Discovered the Hubble Space Telescope which allowed scientists to see that there are more than just one galaxy in this vast universe.
Juicy: Even though he had a lot of amazing discoveries, he never won the Nobel Prize.
A black hole is a region in space where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that light is not able to escape. The strong gravity occurs because matter has been pressed into a tiny space. This compression can take place at the end of a star's life. Some black holes are a result of dying stars.
Solar Flare- a brief powerful eruption of particles and intense electromagnetic radiation from the sun's surface, associated with sunspots and causing disturbances to radio communication on earth.
Solar Prominence (also known as a filament when viewed against the solar disk) is a large, bright feature extending outward from the Sun's surface. Scientists are still researching how and why prominences are formed.
Sunspot- are darker, cooler areas on the surface of the sun in a region called the photosphere.
Solar Wind- an emanation from the sun's corona consisting of a flow of charged particles, mainly electrons and protons, that interacts with the magnetic field of the earth and other planetary bodies.
Auroras- a radiant emission from the upper atmosphere that occurs sporadically over the middle and high latitudes of both hemispheres in the form of luminous bands, streamers, or the like, caused by the bombardment of the atmosphere with charged solar particles that are being guided along the earth's magnetic lines of force.
Solar Eclipse- an eclipse in which the sun is obscured by the moon.
Even though Venus isn't the closest planet to the sun, it is still the hottest. It has a thick atmosphere full of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide and clouds made of sulfuric acid. The gas traps heat and keeps Venus toasty warm. In fact, it's so hot on Venus, metals like lead would be puddles of melted liquid.
Jupiter is the biggest planet in our solar system. It's similar to a star, but it never got big enough to start burning. It is covered in swirling cloud stripes. It has big storms like the Great Red Spot, which has been going for hundreds of years. Jupiter is a gas giant and doesn't have a solid surface, but it may have a solid inner core about the size of Earth. Jupiter also has rings, but they're too faint to see very well.
Uranus is made of water, methane, and ammonia fluids above a small rocky center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen and helium like Jupiter and Saturn, but it also has methane. The methane makes Uranus blue. Uranus also has faint rings. The inner rings are narrow and dark. The outer rings are brightly colored and easier to see. Like Venus, Uranus rotates in the opposite direction as most other planets. And unlike any other planet, Uranus rotates on its side.
Neptune is dark, cold, and very windy. It's the last of the planets in our solar system. It's more than 30 times as far from the sun as Earth is. Neptune is very similar to Uranus. It's made of a thick soup of water, ammonia, and methane over an Earth-sized solid center. Its atmosphere is made of hydrogen, helium, and methane. The methane gives Neptune the same blue color as Uranus. Neptune has six rings, but they're very hard to see.
Pluto is a dwarf planet. A dwarf planet travels around, or orbits, the sun just like other planets. But it is much smaller. Pluto is very, very cold. It is much colder than Antarctica. It is so cold that Earth’s air would freeze into a kind of snow there. Pluto has less gravity than Earth. This means a person would weigh much less on Pluto than on Earth.
A moon is defined to be a celestial body that makes an orbit around a planet, including the eight major planets, dwarf planets, and minor planets. A moon may also be referred to as a natural satellite, although to differentiate it from other astronomical bodies orbiting another body, e.g. a planet orbiting a star, the term moon is used exclusively to make a reference to a planet’s natural satellite.