Manifest Destiny Pages 345-367

1. Rivalry in the Northwest

  1. In the early 1800's, four nations claimed the vast, rugged land known as the Oregon Country.
  2. The Oregon Country was a huge area located north of California, between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains,

2. Adams-Onis Treaty

  1. Many Americans wanted control of Oregon in order to gain access to the Pacific Ocean.
  2. In 1890 Secretary of State John Quincy Adams got Spain to approve the Adams-Onis Treaty.

3.Mountain Men in Oregon

  1. Fur traders had been the first Americans to take up the challenge of living in the Oregon Country.
  2. Over time, the mountain men could no longer make a living by trapping.
  3. Over trapping limited the amount of pelts available, and changes in fashion reduced demand for pelts.

4. "What did America gain from the Adams-Onis Treaty?"

They gained access to the pacific ocean, and got rid of the Spanish and Russian presence in Oregon

5. Oregon and Manifest Destiny - Marcus and Narcissa Whitman

  1. In the 1830's, Americans began traveling to the Oregon Country to settle.
  2. Among the first settlers were Dr. Marcus Whitman and his wife, Narcissa.

6. Along the Oregon Trail

  1. The Whitman massacre was a shocking event, but it did little to stop the flood of pioneers on their way to Oregon.
  2. In 1843 about a thousand emigrants made the journey.
  3. Gathering in Independence or other towns in Missouri, the pioneers followed the Oregon Trail across the Great Plains, along the Platte River, and through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains.

7. America Seeks Its Manifest Destiny

  1. Since colonial times, many Americans had believed their nation's mission should be to serve as a model of freedom and democracy.
  2. Many believed that eh nation's mission was to spread freedom by settling the entire continent.
  3. O'Sullivan declared it was America's "Manifest Destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us."

8. "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight"

  1. Many Americans wanted the United States to take over all of Oregon.
  2. Democrats used the slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight," referring to the line of latitude they believed should be the nation's border in Oregon.
  3. In 1846 The countries (Britain and the U.S.) compromised.

9. "How did Polk's views differ from Clay's in the 1844 election?"

Polk supported taking over all of Oregon. But Clay did not take a strong position on the Oregon issue.

Statehood for Florida and Texas

1. Question- "How did Florida become a state?"

Spain transferred the rights to Florida over to America where it became a territory (state).

2. Florida

  1. When Spain transferred Florida to the United States on July 17, 1821, Florida became an American territory.
  2. Tallahassee became the territorial capital in 1824.
  3. Many planters from Virginia, Georgia, and the Carolina's had worn out their soil with years of heavy use.

3. The Territory Grows

  1. In 1837 the census for the territory of Florida reported that 48,000 people lived there.
  2. Enslaved people made up about one-half of Florida's population.

4. Statehood for Florida

1. Florida became the twenty-seventh state in the United States on March 3, 1845.

5. "What caused the population of Florida to grow?"

As news of the area's fertile land spread, thousands of new settlers streamed into Florida, and some of them brought their slaves with them.

6. Texas

  1. In 1821 Mexico won independence from Spain.
  2. Ar first, Mexico encouraged Americans to settle in Texas.
  3. In 1830 Mexico issued a decree, or official order, closing its border to further immigration.

7. The Alamo

  1. The Texans had only about 180 soldiers to take on Santa Anna's army of several thousand.
  2. For 13 days, through several attacks, the defenders of the Alamo kept Santa Anna's army at bay with rifle fire.
  3. Only a few women and children and some servants survived to tell of the battle.

8. Texas Declares Its Independence

  1. During the siege of the Alamo, Texan leaders met at the town of Washington-on-the-Brazos.
  2. On March 2, 1836--four days before the fall of the Alamo--they declared independence.

9. The Lone Star Republic

  1. In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston as their president.
  2. Houston sent a delegation to Washington, D.C., to ask the United States to annex, or take control of, Texas.

10. Texas Becomes a State

  1. Many Texans wanted to join the United States.
  2. After Polk won, Congress passed a resolution to annex Texas.

11. "Why did it take a long time for the United States to annex Texas?"

It would have been admitted to the United States as a slave state, but Northerners opposed admitting another slave state to the Union, but southerners supported it, and president Van Buren did not want to risk war by inflaming the slavery issue.

War with Mexico

1. "How did the Santa Fe Trail benefit the New Mexico Territory?"

It became a busy trading route to the west, which as more trading happened more people began to settle in the New Mexico area.

2. The New Mexico Territory

  1. In the early 1800s, the land called New Mexico was a vast region between the Texas and California territories.
  2. Mexico--including New Mexico--won its independence from Spain in 1821.

3. "How did William Becknell influence the American settlement of New Mexico?"

He opened the Sante Fe Trail which became a major trading route through New Mexico, and when it started to become more used, more people decided to start settling in that area because of the trade opportunity there, causing the population to grow really fast.

4. California's Spanish Culture

  1. Spanish explorers and missionaries from Mexico settled California in the 1700s.
  2. The missions aimed to convert Native Americans to Christianity and the Spanish way of life.

5. Conflict Begins

  1. President James K. Polk was determined to get the California and New Mexico territories from Mexico.
  2. Relations between the two countries were not friendly.
  3. On April 25, 1846, Mexican troops attacked Taylor's forces.

6. A War Plan

  1. Polk planned to defeat Mexico by accomplishing three goals.
  2. They captured New Mexico's capital, Santa Fe, in 1846 after the Mexican governor fled.

7. California's Uprising

  1. Even before the war with Mexico officially began, American settlers in northern California had begun an uprising.
  2. On June 14, 1846, the Americans declared California independent.

8. Peace Terms

  1. Defeated on February 2, 1848, Mexico's leaders signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
  2. With Oregon and the former Mexican territories under the American flag, the dream of Manifest Destiny had been realized.

9. "What did America gain from the Mexican War?"

American gained more than 5000,000 square miles of territory.

California and Utah

1. "How did the discovery of gold help California?"

It boosted its economy and city size and it also boosted a lot of things such as trade and population too.

2. California Gold Rush

  1. When gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1848, people from all over the world traveled to California in search of riches.
  2. Those who arrived in 1849 were called forty-niners

3. The Californios

  1. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war in Mexico and made Californios-- Mexicans living in California--citizens of the United States

4. The Life of a Forty-Niner

  1. A people ruched to a new area to look for gold, they built new communities.
  2. Most forty-niners had no experience in mining.

5. Gold Rush Society

  1. Mining camps contained men of all backgrounds but few women.

6. Economic and Political Progress

  1. Agriculture, shipping, and trade grew to meet the demand for food ad other goods.

7. "How did the California Gold Rush lead to the expansion of cities?"

The Californios built cities and small towns to house the miners so that they didnt have to travel a long ways each day and also they built them to store things that they needed.

8. A Religious Refuge in Utah

  1. While the gold rush was transforming California, change was also taking place in nearby Utah.

9. The Mormons Move On

  1. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints was among a number of religious movements that sprang up during the religious awakenings of the 1830s and 1840s.
  2. Smith formed a community in New York, but neighbors disapproved of the Mormons' religion and forced them to leave.
  3. Still, the Mormons continued to suffer persecution, or mistreatment because of their beliefs.

10. A Haven in the Desert

  1. The Mormon migration began in 1846.
  2. In 1847 the Mormons finally reached the Great Salt Lake.
  3. By 1860 there were many Mormon communities, but Utah was not easily incorporated into the United States.

11. "Why did the Mormons have to keep moving from one place to another?"

The had to keep moving around because they were being constantly persecuted.


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