Reconstruction is rebuilding not only buildings but also the economy and the relationship between the North and the South. Reconstruction needs to happen because the Union won the war and slavery needs to be abolished. At the end of the war, the South was defeated and was in ruins.
Two Presidential Plans
On Lincoln's point of view, he wants to ask for 10 percent of each state to take the oath of loyalty, and then return to the Union and form a new government. Unfortunately, Lincoln was assasinated in April 1865, by John W. Booth. To take place of Lincoln, President Johnson's plan is for the South to meet 3 conditions: 1. Each state is required to nullify its act of secession; 2. Required to acknowledge that the U.S. Government would not pay for the Civil War debts; 3. Required to ratify the 13th Amendment to the Constitution.
Slavery ends in Texas
Gordon Granger, commander of a large Union force, arrived at Galveston and took control of the city, therefore the state. Gordon announced the Emancipation Proclamation and to declare that all slaves are now free, which set off huge celebrations from the slaves, later known as Juneteenth, on June 19th. When the slaves are going to be released, Congress is going to create the Freedmans's Bureau, which supplied the free slaves with basic needs( food, water, etc.), job opportunities, skills, and education. New Texas Governor Appointed
New Texas Government Apointed
Then, Andrew J. Hamilton was appointed as governor, because of the secession crisis. Hamilton elected delegates at the Constitutional Convention, in which a lot of them were high ranking officers in the confederate army. The convention was bias because Hamilton was a former state representative of Texas.
A New Constitution
The constitution of 1866 is not a new document, but the previous document amended. It states that free people gain the right to own property and to enter into contracts, but they were barred from voting, holding public office, serving on juries, and testifying in court against a white person. When ex-confederates took control, they refuse to ratify the 13th and 14th Amendments, which outlawed slavery, and protected the rights of formerly enslaved people. Black codes are laws that limited the rights of African Americans, which are passed by Southern Governments after Civil War.
Congress takes Control!
Congress feels that Johnsons Plan is not working because few changes have been made. The Radical Republicans are republicans who believe that congress should direct Reconstruction. Th Radical Republicans have gained control when the congressional elections gave the Radical Republicans 2/3rds control of the two houses of congress.
Racical Reconstruction Begins!
The Radical Republicans' plan for reconstruction is to declare that the existing governments in the South were illegal. The military districts would rule the districts until the states ratified the 14th Amendment to the US Constitution, with some states, including Texas to ratify the 15th Amendment as well. Finally congress required Southeners to take the Ironclad Oath, which made Southeners pledge that the individual had not voluntarily served in the Confederate Army or aided the Confederacy. The Oath kept many white Southeners from voting, holding public office, or serving in juries.
Freedmen Get the Vote!
Griffin used the army and the Freedmans Bureau to register male freedmen to vote across state. Nearly 50,000 freedmen were registered to vote. The KKK was an organization of racists whites that used violence and terror to block reconstruction and prevent African Americans from voting. The KKK members wear white hoods to hide their identitys. The KKK opposes carpetbaggers and scalawags because they cooperated with Reconstruction. An example of a KKK attack was in Tennessee in 1869 when a group of KKK members set fire to John Pines house (which is an African American) when he went to vote.
Reconstruction has ended in Texas because the democrats took control of the government. White people in Texas are upset about black people running for office and having rights. Freedmen in Texas live in deserted areas with other Freed people and buid little towns. In 1872, the democrats took over the republicans, regaining the control of the government. So for the next 105 years, the democrats controlled the Texas government.