Camera shake is caused by movement when using a slow shutter speed which makes the photo taken on the camera look blurred. When using a faster shutter speed there are no noticeable effect on the photo than the slower shutter speed as there is more time for movement. There are many ways of different methods to avoid camera shake which are as follows;

  • Using a tripod which will give you the best support and stability when using slow shutter speeds.
  • Improving your hand held technique by bracing yourself and changing your body angle and how you hold the camera by either bringing your elbows together more and cradling the camera or leaning the camera on a surface.


Using built in camera flash is adding light source whether it's added on to another light source or is the primary light source in the shoot.

While the flash from the camera may appear to light up a room, camera flash actually has a limited range , with the intensity of the light diminishing the further it travels. This means that the further away the subject is the less illumination they’ll receive.

It can also add effect which is know as Fill-in flash which works well with portraiture photography as it will reduce the shadows a person can have especially outside in sunshine, it lightens the shadows around the facial features like eye sockets, nose and under the chin.


Continuous light means that when you turn the studio light source on they stay on and keep the subject lit as opposed to flash light which is used to give a burst of flashing light to illuminate a dark scene.

There are two different types of continuous light sources based in studios which are called hot lights and cold lights.

  • For years, photographers have used photoflood, tungsten, quartz, and all kinds of continuous light sources that fall under the general heading of “hot lights.” These light sources have many advantages over flash: They can be inexpensive; they let you see the light as captured, allowing you to use your camera’s in-camera meter; and they are generally smaller and lighter than electronic flash units.
  • "Cold lights" are electronic flashes, much more powerful than the ones on your camera but basically the same idea. Studio strobes come in two types: monolights and powerpack/head systems. The business end of both is the same, a flash tube surrounding an incandescent bulb. They generate more light than heat meaning they produce less heat than hot lights.


Light Painting Photography is the Art Form of using handheld lights to paint and/or draw in a scene while the shutter of a camera is left open during a long exposure photograph. By shooting in a dark location and using photographic technique of long exposure photography, the flashes, streaks, colors, textures, and trails of light created by our light painting tools and modifiers can be captured in your photograph without the use of any post production. Exposure times for light paintings can range from just a few seconds up to an hour or more.

  • To successfully achieve a painting with life photograph you should always use a tripod and shoot when there isn't so much light so you can illuminate a subject/object well.
  • The closer you get with the light source you are using the more abstract your image will turn out. Also the more you move with the light the more light trail you will have.
  • You should always have the light facing away from the camera and onto the subject/object so you don't get any unwanted glare.


A reflector is an improvised or specialised reflective surface used to redirect light towards a given subject or scene. It can be used to bounce, diffuse, or flag natural and artificial light. It also adds a catch light in a model's eye which makes a great portrait. There are three different coloured reflectors which each have different purpose.

  • White reflectors cast a very soft, clean light at the model and is useful in studio where flash is used, or when there is ample light outside like during a sunny noon-time shoot.
  • Silver reflectors held directly above the subject to soften the sun's natural light. It will always go between the light source and the subject. It can also be too strong if the light isn't dull.
  • Gold reflectors cast a very strong warm light onto the subject. Also with this reflector the subject ends up with a radioactive-looking gold face.


A flag is a device used in lighting for motion picture and still photography to block light. It can be used to cast a shadow, provide negative fill, or protect the lens from a flare. Below is a link to a video which helps understand more about using flags in photography.


A diffuser spreads the light from the flash of a camera. In effect, the light will not come from one concentrated source (like a spotlight), but rather will spread out, bounce from reflective ceilings and walls, thus getting rid of harsh light and hard shadows.

Below is a link to a youtube video on more about the use of diffusers.

Created By
Angela Kelly


Created with images by jkirkhart35 - "Low Light Magic- Howard Ignatius is in the circle." • Ivan Malafeyev - "katya-0004_2048" • Werner_krause - "light painting night nature" • Yashna M - "Magic in my cup" • augustfinster - "sparks fireworks welding"

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