Watson and Crick were biologists that discovered the double DNA helix in 1953. They would win the Nobel for this incredible discovery
The Chargaff's rule is a rule stating that DNA only has two base pairings: A to T and G to C. This law also states that every species has a different set of nucleotides on their DNA.
The base pairs of DNA have the ability to bind. They bind by hydrogen bonds. The bonds form and hold together the base pairs.
A chromosome is structure that consists of DNA and associated proteins. Carries part or all of a cell’s genetics.
A karotype is the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism.
A DNA replicates using the enzyme polymease. The DNA double helix is opened up. Once it is opened up it copies each strand using the base pairing rule. This takes place in the nucleus of eukaryotes and the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. This process happens in all organisms.
DNA is a break in the chemical structure of the double helix. The helix could break or it could just not have all its necessary parts needed. Damages could come from a metabolic or hydrolytic process.