国会山报告: 中国被腐败、经济放缓、控制力下降所削弱 【翻译】

Capitol Hill report sees China weakened by corruption, slowing economy, slipping control

国会山报告: 中国被腐败、经济放缓、控制力下降所削弱

中国国家主席习近平在2019年11月14日星期四在巴⻄巴⻄利亚的伊塔⻢拉蒂宫举行的金砖国家新兴经济体领导人会议之前,接受媒体采访。(美联 社照片/帕维尔·戈洛夫金)

By Bill Gertz-- The Washington Times - Thursday, November 14, 2019


China’s ruling Communist Party is struggling with endemic corruption, bureaucratic inertia caused by political purges, and questionable loyalty from the military and police, according to annual commission report to Congress released Thursday.

根据周四公布的向国会提交的年度委员会报告,中国执政的共产党正挣扎于地方性 腐败,因政治清洗运动而造成的官僚惯性,和受质疑的军队警察忠诚度。

Additionally, the once-vaunted Chinese economic miracle is flagging as Communist Party (CCP) leaders grapple with a declining economy and aging population, further creating concerns of a future Soviet-style collapse within the world’s most populous state.


“The CCP faces significant internal and external challenges that constrain its ability to sustain economic growth, project power, and spread its influence globally,” the report of the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission concluded. It was the first time the commission detailed internal CCP weaknesses and failings in its annual report that is derived from hearings, intelligence briefings and fact-finding missions.

美中经济与安全审查委员会的报告总结道:“中共面临着巨大的内部和外部挑战,这些都制约了其维持经济增⻓,发挥项目力量以及向全球扩张其影响力的能力。” 这是委员会经过听证会,情报简报和事实调查后第一次在年度报告中详细说明了CCP内部的脆弱性和弱点。

The report focuses on the policies of current Chinese President Xi Jinping who since coming to power in 2013 launched a massive anti- corruption drive. The report’s authors say that drive has largely failed, leaving Mr. Xi and party leaders struggling to deal with “internal dilemmas directly threatening one-party rule.”

该报告侧重于现任国家主席习近平的一系列政策。自2013年上台以来,习发起了大规模的反腐败运动。该报告的作者说,这种努力在很大程度上失败 了,它使习近平和党的领导人陷入到“直接威胁一党统治的内部困境”中。

Mr. Xi also fears encroachment by anti-communist ideas based on Western values and democracy regarded as subversive that are said to be weakening the communist system of unchallenged control by the Party.

习近平还担心具有颠覆性的⻄方价值观和⺠主观所带来的反共思想的侵蚀。 据说它正在削弱着共产党不可挑战的一党专政制度。

The party is thus facing what the report, based on both unclassified and classified briefings, calls a “crisis of CCP legitimacy.”

因此,根据非保密和保密的报告所称, 该党正面临着“中共合法性的危机”。

‘Communizing’ the system 将制度“共产化”

To counter the problem, Mr. Xi has stepped up efforts to further communize the Chinese system.


“Meanwhile, his signature anticorruption campaign has contributed to bureaucratic confusion and paralysis while failing to resolve the endemic corruption plaguing China’s governing system,” the report said. The “campaign has failed to overcome the endemic natureof CCP corruption, and may have even worsened the functioning of China’s already cumbersome bureaucracy,” the report noted.


Between 2013 and 2018, 2.3 million Chinese officials were disciplined for corruption, including 51 of the most senior CCP leaders, including regional boss Bo Xilai and Zhou Yongkang, who was the first member of the seven- member Politburo Standing Committee to be imprisoned for corruption since the Cultural Revolution of the 1970s. The report said that despite the anti-corruption campaign, China today was judged to be just as corrupt in 2018 as it was in 2012.

在2013年至2018年期间,230万中国官员受到了腐败纪律处分,其中包括51 名最高级的中共领导人,其中还包括地方党魁薄熙来和周永康,薄熙来是自 70年代的文化大革命以来,由七人组成的政治局常委中第一个因腐败而入狱的人。报告称,尽管进行了反腐败运动,今天的中国仍被评判为与2018年和 2012年的中国一样的腐败。

The drive has created bureaucratic paralysis as officials have declined taking any actions over fears of being corrupt. Mr. Xi also has used the anti-corruption drive to consolidate his power within the Party and remove potential threats and controlling dissent.


Economically, China is struggling with a slowing economy, a struggling private sector, rising debt and a rapidly aging population, according to the report. Instead of market reforms, Mr. Xi has shifted sharply toward greater state control of the economy, a process the report called the “Party- ization” of China’s government and society.


Fear of disloyalty 对不忠诚的恐惧

The report also provided new details on fears that the People’s Liberation Army is weakening in its loyalty to the Communist Party.


According to the report, “elements within the PLA and China’s domestic security forces were resisting the authority of the CCP’s central leadership, with some even being used as a tool by provincial leaders to pursue their own political ambitions without regard for central authorities.” That was the case with military and armed police support for Mr. Bo’s bid for power, the report said.

据该报告称,“一些中国人⺠解放军和中国的国内安全部队抵制中共中央领 导的权力,有些甚至被省级领导人用作工具来达到他们自己的政治目的,无 视中央政府。” 报告说,这就像军队和武警曾给予薄熙来权力斗争的支持。

Concerns over military control led Mr. Xi to institute a major purge within the PLA, sacking 78 generals between 2012 and 2019.

对军队控制的担忧导致习近平在解放军内部进行大清洗,在2012年至2019 年期间78名将军被解职。

Outside China, Beijing’s plan to use its economic power to gain influence around the world also is being opposed. The “Belt and Road Initiative,” a multi-trillion dollar infrastructure investment plan, is being opposed by many developing countries, who fear the investments are a trap to gain control.

对外,北京企图利用其经济实力在全球取得影响的计划也遭到了反对。“一带一路”的数十亿美元的基础设施投资计划也遭到许多发展中国家的反对。 他们担心这些投资是中共获得控制权的陷阱。

China also is struggling to develop indigenous technologies and has been hurt by a U.S. ban on exports to companies like Huawei Technologies. “Beijing is deeply concerned about its defense industry’s capacity to independently innovate and develop the cutting-edge technologies. It views as critical to what the CCP terms China’s ‘core national power,’” the report said.

由于受到美国禁止向华为技术公司出口的限制,中国在开发本土技术上也受 到打击。报告说“北京对国防工业自主创新和开发尖端技术的能力深表忧虑,这至关重要,中共堪称之为中国“核心国家力量”。

To bolster its technology development efforts, China is penetrating innovation hubs such as Silicon Valley and forming research partnerships with U.S. and other foreign universities to obtain defense-related technology.