James Joyce By Anthony galante

Writing Style

James Joyce writes in something we now know as a “stream of consciousness” style of writing.

The expression “stream of consciousness” comes from one of my favourite philosophers and psychologists William James.

Stream of consciousness writing aims to provide a textual equivalent to the stream of a fictional character’s consciousness, thus creating the impression that we, the reader, are eavesdropping on the flow of conscious experience in the character’s mind, thereby gaining direct, intimate and unmediated access to their personal, private “thoughts.”

Writing of this kind involves presenting in the form of written text something that is neither entirely verbal nor textual.


The prison of routine, the desire for escape, the intersection of life and death


Chamber Music (poems, 1907)

Dubliners (short-story collection, 1914)

A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (novel, 1916)

Exiles (play, 1918)

Ulysses (novel, 1922)

Pomes Penyeach (poems, 1927)

Collected Poems (poems, 1936, which includes Chamber Music, Pomes Penyeach and other previously published works)

Finnegans Wake (novel, 1939)

Posthumous publications

Stephen Hero (precursor to A Portrait; written 1904–06, published 1944)

Giacomo Joyce (written 1907, published 1968)

Letters of James Joyce Vol. 1 (Ed. Stuart Gilbert, 1957)

The Critical Writings of James Joyce (Eds. Ellsworth Mason and Richard Ellmann, 1959)

The Cat and the Devil (London: Faber and Faber, 1965)

Letters of James Joyce Vol. 2 (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1966)

Letters of James Joyce Vol. 3 (Ed. Richard Ellman, 1966)

Selected Letters of James Joyce (Ed. Richard Ellmann, 1975)

The Cats of Copenhagen (Ithys Press, 2012)

Finn's Hotel (Ithys Press, 2013)

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