SWANN V. CHARLOTTE-MECKLENBURG BOE THIS U.S SUPREME COURT CASE PROPELLED OTHER SCHOOL DISTRICTS TOWARD EQUALITY DUE TO UNEQUAL AND UNFAIR SEGREGATION. by vanessa gruman

(Q) These statistics demonstrate how segregated the schools were in Charlotte, North Carolina: "The city of Charlotte and surrounding Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, comprised a single, independent school district which had more than 84,000 students in 107 schools during the 1968-69 school year. Approximately 29% of students were African American, most of whom attended schools within the city of Charlotte. Two thirds of those students attended 21 schools that were at least 99% populated by other African American students," ("Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education. ["1971"].
(P) Integrated schools were more rare, especially in the south,and it was no different in Charlotte, North Carolina. White supremacists took advantage of transportation structures to prevent further integration and keep it at bay, so to speak. Darius and Vera Swann, a black couple, with the help of the NAACP, sued the district to allow their colored son to attend Seversville Elementary School. The court ruled in favor of the Swann family, and helped to inspire the integration of many schools across the country, greatly impacting the society and unity in the nation ("Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education").
(Q) In the article Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, it states, "Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education, case in which, on April 20, 1971, the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously upheld busing programs that aimed to speed up the racial integration of public schools in the United States," ("Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education").
(S) The Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education had to produce several separate arrangements for the staff and the students in their school district. These two plans they invented included the "Finger plan," created by Dr. Finger, with expertise in the subject of edification, and the "board plan," formed by the board.The board plan utilized the majority-to-minority system, and hoped to strive for an equilibrium between colored and not colored students. This design even anticipated integrating sports teams and their buses ("Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education." ["1971"].
(P) The Finger Plan completed all the tasks the board plan had to offer, but it integrates all of the elementary schools (something that wasn't in the board plan), by combining several schools in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg district. It also aids with transportation to the new assigned schools both the people of color and not ("Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of Education." ["1971"].
(Q) This quote emphasizes the strives the court made towards desegregation: "The Court added that because bus transportation had traditionally been employed by school systems, busing could be used in efforts to correct racial imbalances." ("Swann V. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County Board of Education." ["Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition"].
(P) Throughout a previous trial, the justices had determined that segregation in the school system was nonequivalent to the different racial groups. Later on, the court commanded that assimilation must occur quickly. However, this edification wasn't put into action, and many scholars remained segregated with different races. This case caused integration and it was very enforced because the court reasoned they knew integration was ordered but they tried to avoid it as much as possible ("The 1970s Education: Topics in the News").
(S) The Charlotte-Mecklenburg district, by the use of Jim Crow Laws, allowed segregation. As a result, the U.S. Supreme Court case used busing to assist the desegregation process (Raffel, 1).
(Q) Although the buses were integrated, complications occurred, according to this specific article: "In later decades, court-ordered busing plans were criticized not only by whites but also by African Americans, who often charged that busing harmed African American students by requiring them to endure long commutes to and from school. Busing continued in most major cities until the late 1990s." ("Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education").

Works Cited

"The 1970s Education: Topics in the News." UXL American Decades, Edited by Julie L. Carnagie, Et Al., Vol. 8: 1970-1979, UXL, 2003, Pp. 53-66. Gale Virtual Reference Library, Accessed 22 Mar. 2017.

Hansan, J.E. Colored Waiting Room. Digital image. The Social Welfare History Project. Virginia Commonwealth University, 2011. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

Integration of Buses. Digital image. National Public Radio, 30 Apr. 2004. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

Raffel, Jeffrey. "Busing." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Africanamerican.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1390522. Accessed 23 Mar. 2017.

School Busing Riots. Digital image. National Public Radio. N.p., 30 Apr. 2004. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

School Segregation Protests. Digital image. Progressive Radio Network. AAAS, 11 May 2015. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

Segregated Bus. Digital image. Pinterest. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

SEGREGATED SCHOOLS, 1961. - Top: White Students Boarding Buses for Private Schools. Bottom: African American Students Attending School in a One-room Schoolhouse. Photographed in Farmville, Virginia, 1961.. Fine Art. Britannica ImageQuest, Encyclopædia Britannica, 25 May 2016. Accessed 23 Mar 2017.

Swann v. Charlotte Meckenburg (1971). Digital image. Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

"Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971)." The American Mosaic: The African American Experience, ABC-CLIO, 2017, Africanamerican.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/1514943. Accessed 21 Mar. 2017.

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 Feb. 2017.

"Swann V. Charlotte-Mecklenburg County Board of Education." ["Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition"]. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6Th Edition, Apr. 2016, P. 1.

Thody, Peter. Rusting School Bus. Digital image. American Road Trips. N.p., 2008. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.

Wilkins, Roy. Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg 1971. Digital image. Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2017.

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