Green plants absorb light energy using chlorophyll in their leaves. They use it to react carbon dioxide with water to make a sugar called glucose. The glucose is used in respiration, or converted into starch and stored. Oxygen is produced as a by-product.
Photosynthesis occurs in a plant's chloroplasts, where chlorophyll collects energy from sunlight to begin the chemical reaction between water and carbon dioxide.
The other layer of the mesophyll is the spongy layer. The parenchyma cells that make up the palisade layer are oblong, tightly-packed together, and filled with chloroplasts. Most of the plant's photosynthesis occurs in the palisade layer.
The air space in a leaf allows communication between the interior and exterior environment of the plant. The air spaces in a plant are called the stomata and the boundary layer.
The mesophyll has two layers: an upper palisade layer and a lower spongy layer.
A waxy cuticle covers all aerial surfaces of land plants to minimize water loss. ...
Veins provide support for the leaf and transport both water and minerals and food energy through the leaf and on to the rest of the plant.