Marine Enviroment By Rita cagan

Rising Sea levels

The Island of Tebua Tarawa is one of the many islands that have been effected by rising sea levels.
  • Rising Sea levels are one of the many problems from climate change.
  • Sea levels have risen 10-25 centimeters in the last 100 years and have been predicted to rise 50 more centimeters in the next 100 years.
  • Scientists say they can be caused in two different ways. One way the sea levels are getting higher are by the polar ice caps melting. 275 gigatons of glacier mass was lost between 1993 and 2009.
  • Another way sea levels are rising is because the sea water is getting warmer. Since the water is getting warmer the sea is starting to expand. When water starts to warm the molecules start to separate farther apart.
  • Sea levels rise at approximately 1/8 of an inch a year rising a little bit more each year.
  • Sea level rising is causing many small islands to be at risk of totally overflowing with water. Some islands already have been totally covered with water such as Abanuea, Tepuka Savilivili, and the island Tebua Tarawa.
  • Some other islands such as Tuvalo New Zealand are already starting to be evacuated. It isn't just islands that are at risk thought.
  • 40% of the United States population live in coastal areas where storm surges, flooding and coastal erosion could happen. This means that many cities that are near the coast such as New York, Boston, New Orleans, and Los Angeles are at risk of these problems.
  • Rising sea levels will also cause problems in ecosystems, freshwater, and human developments.

Measuring sea levels

Scientists have a tool that people can measure sea levels along with potential storm information, and tide elevation. The tool scientists use to measure sea level is a tide gauge. A tide gauge helps provide important information about coastal tides and and major storms. A tide gauge was recently installed at the Town of Saco’s pier at Camp Ellis in Maine becoming one of the 17 important tide gauges in New England.

Effects on lobsters and diseases

This diagram represents how many lobsters were caught in different parts of New England. The purple represents a high amount of lobsters caught. The white represents a low amount of lobsters caught

Lobsters

  • Climate change has also been effecting marine animals like lobsters.
  • Climate change has been warming the oceans which has been causing lobsters to be pushed farther north.
  • This has caused industries in New York and other southern states in the New England to crash.
  • In 1999 70% of lobster man lost their income by 100% because of severity and suddenness of the lobsters departure.
  • Lobsters have to be in a water temperature that is no more than 20 degrees Celsius (68 degrees Fahrenheit). If the temperature does rise the lobster are then at risk of disease this stage is called a "stress threshold".
  • A test was done and it was reported that 94% of the lobsters that lived in the south had the same common disease that can cause death this disease is called paramoebiasis.
  • It was reported that this disease was able to effect lobsters because of there weekended immune systems which was caused by the long stretch of above-average temperatures in there habitats.

Disease

  • Many people have reported disease in organisms such as urchins, turtles, mollusks, echinoderms, and marine mammals.
  • These outbreaks of disease can effect certain marine organisms that are important to habitats such as coral, algae, and eel grass.
  • Diseases in these organisms caused from rising water temperatures can increase death rates, change of ecosystems, and change of habitat and species relationship.
  • Example of how disease is effecting organisms is how eel grass loss due too disease is taking away critical nursery habitats for commercially important fish. It was also reported that 66 species of coral in Chesapeake Bay are endangered and eel grass completely died out in the hot summers between 2005 and 2010.
Eel Grass

Ocean temperatures rising

  • One reason for the oceans getting hotter is because of saltwater's large heat storing capacity.
  • Warming sea levels was first reported and measured in 1970 2300 feet below sea level.
  • In many places in North America and Pacific (US included) warming has also increased largely.
  • The thickness of the arctic ice has also reduced over the pass 4 decades as well.
  • A side effect of oceans warming is it reduces vertical mixing of ocean water that brings nutrients from deep water which leads to potential impacts of biological productivity.
  • This could also reduce oxygen supply in deep water leading to more sub oxygen zones.
  • Both of these problems together could cause change in ocean productivity.
  • Satellite observations have also shown that warming of oceans and subtropics will cause reductions in biological productivity oceans and larger areas with microscopic plant biomass.
  • These warming temperatures will not only effect marine organisms, but also the whole ocean food web, human activities and human jobs associated with ocean productivity.
  • Warming sea levels will cause oceans levels to rise, changes in upper water salinity, changes in oxygen, effects on marine life, and effects on humans that rely on the ocean.

Citations

"National Climate Assessment." National Climate Assessment. National Climate Assessment. U.S. Global Change Research Program, 2014. Web. 05 Mar. 2017.

Greenhalg, Emly. "Climate & Lobsters | NOAA Climate.gov." Climate & Lobsters | NOAA Climate.gov. N.p., 06 Oct. 2016. Web. 05 Mar. 2017.

"Global Sea Level." NOAA's Ten Signs of a Warming World: Global Sea Level. Climate Program Office, n.d. Web. 05 Mar. 2017.

Cool, Johnny. "Rising Sea Levels – The World." Cool Kids For A Cool Climate. N.p., 07 Dec. 2016. Web. 05 Mar. 2017.

"Maine's Newest Tide Gauge for Coastal Safety." Maine's Newest Tide Gauge for Coastal Safety. USGS, 31 May 2016. Web. 06 Mar. 2017.

Created By
Rita Cagan
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Created with images by Chi Bellami - "Wave"

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