John Dalton proposed that all matter is composed of very small things which he called atoms. He came up with a theory on the smallest particles in the universe, of what makes up what we call "matter".Dalton experimented with a gas called nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O).
Thomson proposed the plum pudding model of the atom in 1904 before the discovery of the atomic nucleus in order to include the electron in the atomic model. In Thomson's model, the atom is composed of electrons.
Rutherford's model contained the new features of a relatively high central charge concentrated into a very small volume in comparison to the rest of the atom and with this central volume also containing the bulk of the atomic mass of the atom.