Human Reproduction and Gestation By: Madelyn Libby and Addison barker

Addison & Madelyn
Female Reproduction System and Menstrual Cycle

Female Reproduction

  • Fertilization occurs in the end of the fallopian tube away from the uterus.
  • The egg can live for 12 to 24 hours after ovulation.
  • The waving fijmbraie create fluid currents that act to carry the oocyte into the uterine tube, where it begins its journey toward the uterus.
  • The oocyte is carried toward the uterus by a combination of peristalsis and the rhythmic beating of cilia. The sperm must swim upward through the vagina and uterus to reach the uterine tubes. Because the sperm must swim against the downward current created by the cilia.
  • A person who has never been pregnant, the uterus is about the shape and size of a pear. During pregnancy, the uterus grows in tremendous size.
  • The fertilized egg burrows into the endometrium.
  • Oocyte is the immature egg before the egg begins to mature.
  • A polar body is a minute cell that is produced during meiosis in the ovary. An ovum is a female gamete; an egg. When the ovulated secondary oocyte is penetrated by sperm in the uterine tube, the oocyte undergoes the second meiotic division that produces another polar body and the ovum.
  • The cyclic production of estrogen and progesterone by the ovaries is regulated by the anterior pituitary gonadotropic hormones, FSH and LH.
  • Ovarian Cycle: age 11-51, 250,000 oocytes released in a lifetime
  • Secondary sex characteristics are features that are induced in non-reproductive organs by sex hormones. Hair growth, deep voice
  • Menstrual Cycles: The menstrual cycle is the regular natural change that occurs in the female reproductive system (specifically the uterus and ovaries) that makes pregnancy possible. Ovulation occurs around day 14 of a 28 day cycle. LH and FSH, which are produced by the pituitary gland, promote ovulation and stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and progesterone.
  • Homestatic Imbalances: Cervical Cancer- malignant tumor of the lower most part of the uterus, Breast Cancer- kind of cancer that develops from breast cells, Endometriosis- disorder in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows outside the uterus, PID- infection of the female reproductive organs.
Male Reproductive System

Male Reproduction

  • Sperm is made in the seminiferous tubules.
  • Epididymus is about 20 ft, and a trip takes about 20 days. Sperm learn the ability to swim.
  • The Vas Deferens runs upward from the epididymus through the inguinal canal and into the pelvic cavity and arches over the superior aspect of the urinary bladder.
  • Vasectomy: prevents the release of sperm when a man ejaculates
  • Urethra: carry urine and sperm, do not mix because there are two different valves
  • Seminal Vesicles: secrete seminal fluid, rich in sugar, vitamin c, prostaglandins, and other substances that nourish and activate the sperm, important because they make the sperm swim
  • Prostate Gland: secretes a milkily fluid that plays a roll in activating sperm
  • Bulbourethral Gland: a thick clear mucus that drains into the penile, it cleanses the urethra of traces of acidic urine and serves as a lubricant during sexual intercourse
  • 1. milking, white somewhat sticky mixture of sperm and gland secretions 2. liquid portion acts as a transport medium for nutrients and chemicals that protect the sperm and help their movement 3. mature sperm cells are stream lined cellular missiles containing little cytoplasms or stored nutrients 4. semen also contains the hormone relaxin 5. semen dilutes sperm so sperm motlily is not impaired
  • Secondary Sex Characteristics: are features that are induced in non-reproductive organs by sex hormones
  • Infertility can include infection, ejaculation issues, and hormone imbalances. Environmental reasons can include radiation, pesticides, and tobacco.
  • Sexual Infantilism: secondary sex characteristics never appear in a young man Prostate Cancer: cancer in a man's prostate Prostatitis: swelling of the prostate

Pregnancy and Embryonic Development

  • Cleavage- early stage of the embryonic development
  • Embryo- an organism in its early stages of development
  • Blastocyst- a stage of early embryonic development
  • HCG- hormone which prods the corpus lute of the ovary to continue producing its hormones
  • Placenta- temporary org that provides nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus
  • Amnion- fetal membrane that forms a fluid-filled sac around the embryo
  • Umbilical Cord- connecting to the placenta and the fetus
  • Fetus- the unborn; in humans the period from third month until birth
  • Changes: 8 weeks bone formation, 12 weeks sex readily detected, 16 weeks kidneys attain structure, 20 weeks vernix caseosa covers body, 30 weeks eyes are open, 40 weeks skin whitish pink, fat laid down


  • After the egg is released, it moves into the fallopian tube. It stays there for about 24 hours, waiting for a single sperm to fertilize it. All this happens, on average, about 2 weeks after your last period.
  • The head of the sperm is pulled into the oocyte cytoplasm. Once a single sperm has penetrated the oocyte, the oocyte nucleus completes the second meiotic division, forming the ovum and the polar body.
  • A zygote is the fertilized ovum; produced by union of two gametes.

Effects on a Mother

  • Heartburn is common because the esophagus is displaced and the stomach is crowded by the growing uterus.
  • Morning sickness is common because the body is not use to the rising level of estrogen and progesterone.
  • Relaxin causes the pelvic ligaments and pubic symphysis to relax and widen to get ready for childbirth.
  • The center of gravity changes the mother's center of mass, which is a critical point in any three-dimensional body on which gravity acts. As this center of mass shifts forward, pregnant women have to lean back and change their gait to stay steady.
  • The myth eating for two actually makes the mother eat more food which causes excessive weight gain.
  • Dyspnea is a condition in which women have difficulty breathing during the later stages of pregnancy.
  • Total body water rises and blood volume increases by 25 to 40 percent to accommodate the additional needs for the fetus. The rise in blood volume also acts as a safeguard against the blood loss during birth.


  • Braxton Hicks contractions are sporadic uterine contractions that sometimes start around six weeks into a pregnancy.
  • Oxytocin is produced in pregnancy, levels increase significantly during active labor and childbirth.
  • The fetus begins to move further into the mother's birth canal. Vertex position
  • Aspirin is given to mothers because is doesn't have a blood thinner in it.
  • The sex is determined at the time of fertilization. Prior to the eighth week, the embryonic reproductive structures of males and females are identical and said to the indifferent stage. Eighth week is the differentiation week.
  • The dilation stage is the longest part of labor and usually lasts for 6 to 12 hours. It begins when the appearance of true contractions appear.
  • In contrast to the dilation stage, which can last hours, the expulsion stage usually takes less than one to two hours. It begins as the cervix completes its dilation and is pushed open by the head of the fetus. During the expulsion stage, contractions reach maximum intensity and propel the fetus out of the uterus, through the cervix, and down the birth canal.
  • This last stage of childbirth usually lasts anywhere from five to 20 minutes or more. The placenta, also known as afterbirth, provided bed and board for your baby for most of his or her stay in your uterus, and its delivery represents the end of that era.


  • Dystocia is difficult birth, typically caused by a large or awkwardly positioned fetus, by smallness of the maternal pelvis, or by failure of the uterus and cervix to contract and expand normally.
  • Pseudohermaphroditism is the condition in which an individual of one sex has external genitalia resembling those of the other sex.
  • Cryptorchidism is when a testicle hasn't moved into the bag of skin below the penis before birth.
  • Menopause is a natural decline in reproductive hormones when a woman reaches her 40s or 50s.

Report Abuse

If you feel that this video content violates the Adobe Terms of Use, you may report this content by filling out this quick form.

To report a Copyright Violation, please follow Section 17 in the Terms of Use.