There are many different types of engines: diesel engines, spark ignition engines, compression engines, electric engines, and more. The two types I am presenting about are spark ignition engines and compression engines, the two types of internal combustion engines. How most engines make wheels turn is simple. A controlled explosion in the cylinder pushes the piston down and around, which also makes the axle and wheel rotate.
In the spark ignition engine a spark plug produces a spark that ignites an air-gas mixture that produces the explosion.The ratio of gas to air is 1:14. That means it takes 14 parts of air in the mixture and only one part gas. On the other hand, compression engines spray air into a cylinder, in which the piston has compressed the air, and when the hot, compressed air mixes with the regular air, it creates an explosion.
Engine parts and their roles
- Piston-pushes air around and resides in the cylinder
- Cylinder-houses and guides the piston
- Spark plug-ignites the fuel-air mixture
- valves-allow fuel-air mixture to enter combustion chamber and let the exhaust out
- connecting rod-connects the piston to the crankshaft
- crankshaft-turns pistons up and down
- sump-surrounds the crankshaft
- injector-sprays fuel into the combustion chamber at the end of a compression stroke
- flywheel-a disc attached to the crank
A single car has about 30000 parts, so that was just a few of the major ones.
Most engines use a four-stroke cycle. On the first stroke, the intake valve opens and the piston moves down beginning the cycle. The second stroke compresses the air to make a larger explosion. On the third stroke the spark plug ignites the fuel-air mixture or in a compression engine air is sprayed, creating an explosion. During the fourth and final stroke, the exhaust valve opens to release the waste gas created.
That is some of the basics of how engines work, and the parts that make them up.
Sources: http://www.mech4study.com/2014/03/main-parts-of-internal-combustion-engine-or-automobile-engine.html and http://carenginecooling.blogspot.com/2012/07/basic-engine-parts-core-of-engine-is.html and http://www.thegreenbook.com/engine-parts-and-their-functions.htm and https://energy.gov/eere/energybasics/articles/internal-combustion-engine-basics and https://animagraffs.com/how-a-car-engine-works/