Chapter 15 Years of crisis

1.) Postwar Uncertainty A New Revolution in Science The ideas of Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud had an enormous impact on the 20th century These thinkers were part of a scientific revolution Albert Einstein offered startling new ideas on space, time, energy, and matter. Scientists had found that light travels at exactly the same speed no matter what direction it moves in relation to earth.Since relative motion is the key to Einstein’s idea, it is called the theory of relativity. Einstein’s ideas had implications not only for science but also for how people viewed the world. Now uncertainty and relativity replaced Isaac Newton’s comforting belief of a world operating according to absolute laws of motion and gravity Influence of Freudian Psychology The ideas of Austrian physician Sigmund Freud were as revolutionary as Einstein’s. Literature in the 1920 Writers Reflect Society’s Concerns The horror of war made a deep impression on many writers .Author Franz Kafka wrote eerie novels.Revolution in the Arts Although many of the new directions in painting and music began in the prewar period, they evolved after the war. Artists Rebel Against Tradition Artists rebelled against earlier realistic styles of painting. They wanted to depict the inner world of emotion and imagination rather than show realistic representations of objects.Society Challenges Convention World War I had disrupted traditional social patterns. New ideas and ways of life led to a new kind of individual freedom during the 1920s.Technological Advances Improve Life During World War I, scientists developed new drugs and medical treatments that helped millions of people in the postwar years.

2.)A worldwide Depression postwar Europe In both human suffering and economic terms, the cost of World War I was immense. The Great War left every major European country nearly bankrupt.The Weimar Republic Germany’s new democratic government was set up in 1919.Financial Collapse In the late 1920s, American economic prosperity largely sustained the world economy. if the U.S. economy weakened, the whole world’s economic system might collapse. In 1929, it did.The Great Depression People could not pay the money they owed on margin purchases. Stocks they had bought at high prices were now worthless.The World Confronts the Crisis The Depression confronted democracies with a serious challenge to their economic and political systems. Each country met the crisis in its own way.

3.)Fascism Rises in Europe Fascism’s Rise in Italy militant political movement that emphasized loyalty to the state and obedience to its leader. Hitler Rises to Power in Germany. When Mussolini became dictator of Italy in the mid-1920s, Adolf Hitler was a little-known political leader whose early life had been marked by disappointment. Hitler Becomes Chancellor.The Nazis had become the largest political party by 1932.Other Countries Fall to Dictators While Fascists took power in Italy and Germany, the nations formed in eastern Europe after World War I also were falling to dictators.

Adolf Hitler

4.) Japan Seeks an Empire During the 1920s, the Japanese government became more democratic. In 1922, Japan signed an international treaty agreeing to respect China’s borders. In 1928, it signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing war.European Aggressors on the March The League’s failure to stop the Japanese encouraged European Fascists to plan aggression of their own. The Italian leader Mussolini dreamed of building a colonial empire in Africa like those of Britain and France.Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace Instead of taking a stand against Fascist aggression in the 1930s


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