The Federal Budget Process From Proposal to Law — 2017 Proposed Budget

THREE BRANCHES OF US GOVERNMENT — EXECUTIVE BRANCH includes President, Vice President, Cabinet, Departments, and Agencies; LEGISLATIVE BRANCH includes the House of Representatives and the Senate — The House and the Senate combined makes Congress; and the JUDICIAL BRANCH or the Supreme Court (not involved in the Budget Process).
Members of the House of Representatives are elected by each state according to population — Each state elects two Senators.
The Budget Process begins with the President, his Cabinet, and the information submitted from the different agencies to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

On or before the first. Monday in February, the president submits a detailed budget request for discretionary spending to Congress, covering the next fiscal year that begins October 1.

The president's proposed budget that was given to Congress only addresses Discretionary spending for the 12 agencies. The other 92% of the Federal Government's expenses are mandatory or entitlements.

President Trumph's $3.6 Trillion in Revenues (FY 2017) must cover all discretionary, mandatory, and entitlement spending requirements.

The president’s proposed $1.15 Trillion discretionary budget for FY 2017, includes increases for only three agencies — Veterans Affairs +6%, Homeland Security +7%, and Defense +10%. Defense spending accounts for 56.1% of all total discretionary spending.

The budget makes severe cuts to Health and Human Services that includes $5.9 Billion or about 18% to the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The proposed budget jeopardizes essential biomedical research and development by NIH. It also impacts coherent prevention strategies and critical disease response work by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
The President submits the proposed budget to Congress. Then, Congress begins to shape the appropriation bills in the 12 separate budget committees for the House and the Senate. The House and the Senate separately vote on these appropriation bills.

In December, 2016, Congress authorized a 6.6% funding increase for the NIH to $32B through October, 2017. Prior to that, funding had not been increased since 2013. The proposed FY 2017 budget will roll back this funding to pre-2013 funding levels.

Each subcommittee conducts hearings on the programs under its jurisdiction and votes out a bill. The full committee marks up the bill and sends it to the floor of Congress for a vote.
“This budget [the proposed budget for FY 2017] will be a public safety and national security budget, very much based on those two,” Trump said in a speech to US governors at the National Governors Association on February 27, 2017. This statement contradicts the fact that NIH and CDC funding is an integral part of national security.
All of the appropriations bills are supposed to be signed by the president by October 1, but this rarely happens. To avoid a government shutdown, a series of continuing resolutions are usually approved to continue funding the agencies at their current levels.
“A $6 billion cut to the National Institutes of Health is unacceptable to the scientific community, and should be unacceptable to the American public as well,” Benjamin Corb, director of public affairs at the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, said in a statement. “President Donald Trump’s fiscal year 2018 spending plan erases years’ worth of bipartisan support for the NIH, and the American biomedical research enterprise, which has long been the global leader for biomedical innovation. Cuts this deep threaten America’s ability to [remain] a leader.”
Reconciliation occurs if Congress needs to legislate policy changes in mandatory spending or tax laws to meet the annual targets laid out in the budget resolution. The resolution requires the relevant authorizing committees to come up with a plan and report back to the budget committees. The budget committees combine all of the authorizing plans into an omnibus package and send it to the floor for a vote. The House and Senate work out differences in conference. They vote again and send the final version to the president for a signature into law or a veto.
Health and Human Services would be cut by 16.2% under the president's proposed budget FY 2017.
Congress Discretionary Appropriations Bill — May 3, 2017
2017 Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Enacted Budgetary Appropriations— May 3, 2017
2017 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Enacted Budgetary Appropriation
2017 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Enacted Budgetary Appropriation

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