The Theory of Change (TOC) logic model was used to integrate the actions of the City of Oneida Climate Action Plan 2014 and the NYS Climate Smart Communities program (CSC) as it the TOC provides stakeholders to better understand the entire program.

By using the TOC logic model, we are better able to recognize the immediate, ongoing and long term goals of the CSC/Oneida program. The linearity of the TOC logic model allowed for a comparison of the Oneida Action Plan and the CSC program by providing the opportunity to develop evaluation questions about Oneida’s efforts to become a CSC.

The TOC logic model allows stakeholders to use existing literature to better understand if successes and failures are related to the theory or the implementation of the program.



According to ​Table 2 Complicated and Complex Aspects of Interventions in Rogers (2008), there are three aspects that can be used to determine if an intervention is complicated. The three aspects are governance and implementation, simultaneous causal strands, and alternative causal strands.

The complicated aspect of governance and implementation is the crossing of disciplines, jurisdiction, and agencies (Rogers, 2008). In the case of Oneida becoming a CSC there is an overlap in the disciplines of policy and environmental studies, in the local and state government, and in the various agencies that form and implement the actions of the CSC program.

The simultaneous causal strands aspect is that there are multiple causal strands affecting the intervention (Rogers, 2008). This also applies to Oneida because there are causal strands from the local, state, and federal level. Oneida is implementing a state program and some of their 2025 goals are dependent on federal programs. There are also the various causal strands of the transportation, building and waste management efforts of the city.

The third aspect is alternative causal stands, which is different causal mechanisms occurring at the same time in various contexts (Rogers, 2008). Just as the causal strands of the transportation, building, and waste management interventions are occurring simultaneously, they are all operating at the same time, yet in different contexts.



What actions have you taken to obtain the CSC certification?

a. How many points do you have according to the attached checklist?

i. The sponsor wants to complete the necessary actions in order to become a certified CSC. A certified CSC has to have at least 120 points. By using the attached checklist to realize how many points the City of Oneida has, they can realize how many more points they need to earn. The leaders who have implemented this program should have records of actions taken toward the CSC certification. They can then use the attached checklist to compare where they are to where they want to be.


Which actions from your “City of Oneida Climate Action Plan 2014” have you implemented?

Which activities have been successfully implemented?

Which activities have faced constraints to implementation? Have you readjusted for these constraints?

The City of Oneida has outlined their action plan based on an emissions inventory from 2010. The city has a specific set of guidelines as to how it plans to reach a decline in GHG emissions. By realizing which activities have actually been implemented and which activities have not, the city can gauge where it stands with its actual effort to mitigate climate change. By looking at successful activities and unsuccessful activities the city can also realize which activities may need more attention or reconsideration. This question is answerable through the records of the activities that have been implemented through the CSC program.


What are the financial sources for funding the implementation of the activities that lead to the 2025 emissions goals?

a. Subquestion

i. How is this question grounded in either your understanding of the TOC of the program or of the sponsor’s information needs to make a specific decision (backwards mapping) How does this question fit the Evaluation purpose?Is this question reasonable and appropriate given program maturity, resources, context? How is this question answerable?

The “City of Oneida Climate Action Plan: Executive Summary” explains the cost of implementation of their climate action plan. In order for the City of Oneida to successfully implement their strategies there needs to be a funding sources. Although, there are grants through NYS, the DEC, and the CSC program, there is the possibility that grants may stop.

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