Chapter 8 By Mike McMahon

Watson and Crick: During many years of studies, James Watson and Francis Crick finally came to their conclusion. In the 1950s, they proved that DNA is in the shape of a helix. They used models made of household items such as wire to arrive at this conclusion.

Edwin Chargaff: A biochemist who set two major rules when dealing with DNA in 1950. The first rule was that all the things that go into DNA, such as guanine, have an equal amount of the other substance. The second rule was basically that another species will have different amounts of DNA substances in their DNA than another organism of a different species.

The way that base pairs bind is quite simple. A binds with T and G binds with C. This is because the DNA strands are complementary with each other.

Chromosomes are the structures that contain all of our genetic information. It is what makes us different from every other human. They contain the DNA proteins.

Karyotype is the image of all our chromosomes together. They are all very unique.

The DNA replication process is pretty complex. DNA replication is dependent on cell division. When a cell is ready to divide itself, the DNA will divide too. DNA goes from one chromosome to a chromosome with two chromatids and a centromere.

The main cause of damage to DNA is the various errors that DNA can undergo during DNA replication. Another big cause is the exposure of harmful radiation such as gamma rays. These causes can damage the DNA or completely break it.

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