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在全国人民代表大会上:习近平、香港和就业 【中英对照翻译】

作者:Tao Lesi, May 25, 2020, / 陶乐思2020年5月25日

消息来源:http://chinamediaproject.org《中国传媒研究计划网》

翻译/简评:johnwallis

PR:Julia Win

简评:

2020年两会时间缩短,报告内容压缩了一半,从中共官方的报告上有几个重点得到了强调,它们分别是:标志着习近平权力更加集中,强调就业的问题,论述了香港、台湾与中美关系。这些是作者分析去年和今年中共国政府报告关键字的频次得到的。2020年的中共政府工作报告,保持了对领袖誓死效忠的基调,对国家面临的经济困难,则是更加现实和务实。与此同时,在香港问题上,由于香港的反抗运动,官方工作报告的基调与去年 “两会 ”有了明显的变化。

从官方报道中,我们可以看到,2019年是中共转折走向衰落关键的一年。一方面中共的权力更集中,另一方面,国内的工作机会逐渐减少,中共与香港的关系、中美关系愈发走向冰点。中共国回不到过去,世界也已回不到过去一年的状态。

At the NPC: Xi Jinping, Hong Kong and Jobs

在全国人民代表大会上:习近平、香港和就业

[Featured image: Protesters gather in Hong Kong in July 2019 to oppose the proposed extradition bill. Image by Studio Incendo, available at Flickr.com under CC license.][特写图:2019年7月,抗议者聚集在香港,反对引渡法案。图片来源:Studio Incendo,可在Flickr.com上获得CC授权。]

The “two meetings” of the National People’s Congress (NPC) and the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) have been shortened in 2020, and correspondingly the government work report delivered by Premier Li Keqiang (李克强) has been cut down, from last year’s more than 20,000 characters to just 10,400 characters. Li’s address on Friday took just one hour to deliver, short by historical standards.

2020年的全国人大(NPC)、政协(CPPCC) “两会”缩短了,李克强总理所作的政府工作报告也相应缩减,由去年的2万多字缩减到只有1.04万字。李克强周五的讲话只用了一个小时就完成了,按历史标准来看很短。

But as the room for verbiage was halved in this government report, what terms and priorities were emphasized?

但在这次政府工作报告中,随着措辞的空间被压缩了一半,强调了哪些名词和重点?

No decline whatsoever in terms such as “core” signifying Xi Jinping’s power

标志着习近平权力的 “核心”词汇没有任何下降。

In the 2020 report, like the 2019 report, we find the so-called “442 formula,” referring to the “Four Consciousnesses” (四个意识), the “Four Confidences” (四个自信) and the “Two Protections” (两个维护), appearing once. The phrase group, which is an important indicator of Xi Jinping’s central role in the CCP leadership, was briefly absent from the texts emerging in February and March from meetings of the Standing Committee of the CCP Politburo, the Communist Party’s highest decision-making body – possibly a sign that drum-beating over Xi’s status was being toned down somewhat in the midst of the coronavirus epidemic. But the “442 Formula” quickly returned, and seeing it in the work report is perhaps a further sign of the return to normal in terms of bullish treatment of Xi and his leadership.

2020年的报告,和2019年的报告一样,我们发现所谓的 “442格式”,即 “四个意识”、“四个自信”、“两个维护”,出现了一次。作为习近平在中共领导核心地位的重要标志,这个词组在2月和3月中共最高决策机构—中共政治局常委会议上的文本中短暂地缺席,这可能是一个迹象,表明在冠状病毒疫情中,对习近平地位的鼓噪有所收敛。但 “442格式”很快又回来了,在工作报告中看到它的出现,或许是对习近平及其领导层的看好回归常态的进一步标志。

In the 2019 government work report, Xi Jinping’s name appeared 13 times, and Xi’s banner term, “Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for the New Era” (习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想), appeared four times. It is important to note that even as the text of the work report was chopped in half this year, we had just one less instance of Xi’s name, and one less instance of his banner term. If we look at the use of both in terms of use per 1,000 characters, the rise in volume in the 2020 report is clear.

在2019年的政府工作报告中,习近平的名字出现了13次,习近平的旗帜性名词“习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想”出现了4次。值得注意的是,即使今年工作报告的文字被砍了一半,我们也只是看到少了一个习近平的名字,少了一个他的旗帜性名词。如果我们从每千字的使用量来看,两者的使用量在2020年工作报告中的上升是显而易见的。

Nevertheless, despite its very strong appearance in the work report, “Xi Thought” (习思想) has not yet been further elevated by the inclusion of the phrase “raising high” (高举). We do not yet have the phrase, in other words, “raising high the banner of Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for the New Era,” which would indicate a new climb in status for Xi as paramount leader.

尽管如此, “习思想 ”在工作报告中出现的频率很高,但 “习思想 ”的 “高举 ”一词,在工作报告中还没有因为 “高举 ”一词的加入而进一步提升。我们现在还没有 “高举习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的旗帜 ”这句话,换句话说,“高举习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想的旗帜”,这将预示着习近平作为最高领导人的地位又有了新的攀升。

At the tail end of the report, we can clearly see a point where the graduated phrase might easily fit. But the report reads instead: “. . . raising high the banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics, with Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for the New Era as the guide” (高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导”).

在报告的末尾,我们可以清楚地看到一点,那就是渐进的短语可能很容易合适。但报告中的内容却这样写道 “……高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为指导”。

The following table compares the occurrence of various key terms in the 2019 and 2020 government work reports, as well as the lengths of the reports and relevant sections:

下表对2019年和2020年政府工作报告中各种关键词的出现情况及报告和相关章节的篇幅进行了比较:

Like the 2019 report, this year’s report does not use a number of the more boastful terms (自嗨语) that can readily be found in the state media to describe China’s strengths and its importance globally. Terms like “China Model” (中国模式), “China Plan” (中国方案), “Chinese knowledge” (中国智慧) and “Chinese template” (中国范本) are not present, nor is the term “great power responsibility” (大国担当), a foreign policy phrase that seems to have appeared more frequently in recent months to describe China’s actions globally in the midst of the Covid-19 crisis.

与2019年的报告一样,今年的报告也没有使用一些在国营媒体上随处可见的比较夸张的词汇(自嗨语)来描述中国的优势和在全球的重要性。诸如 “中国模式”、“中国方案”、“中国智慧”、“中国范本”等词汇都没有出现。“大国担当”这个近几个月来似乎更频繁地出现在描述中国在全球范围内行动的外交政策用语也没有出现。

However, we can spot another phrase, related to the above, that has also played prominently of late in the official media – “political and institutional advantages” (政治和制度优势).

不过,我们可以发现,与上述相关的另一个短语,最近也在官方媒体上占据了显著位置—“政治和制度优势”。

The phrase “national security” (国家安全) appears twice in both the 2019 and the 2020 work reports.

在2019年和2020年的工作报告中,“国家安全 ”这个词语都出现了两次。

A greater emphasis on “employment”

更加重视 “就业 ”的问题

In the 2019 work report, the now common phrase “Six Stabilities” (六稳) had not yet emerged. However, there was mention at two different points in the 2019 report of “stabilities” outside of this rhetorical formula. These are: stable employment (稳就业), stable finance (稳金融), stable foreign trade (稳外贸), stable foreign investment (稳外资), stable investment (稳投资) and stable expectations (稳预期). The terms “Six Stabilities” and “Six Guarantees” (六保) – 1) employment, 2) basic livelihoods, 3) the market structure, 4) grain and energy security, 5) industry supply chains, and 6) operations at the grassroots – have now become formalized in 2020 as part of the official discourse, and we see each of these appearing 3 times in the government work report this year. Aside from these mentions, there are 39 separate mentions of “employment” (就业) alone, 9 more than last year (again, in a report just half the length). This suggests that within consideration of the whole range of economic issues, maintaining employment is one area that particularly concerns the government.

在2019年的工作报告中,还没有出现目前常见的 “六稳 ”这个说法。不过,在2019年的报告中,在这个修辞手法之外,两个不同的地方提到了 “六稳”。即:稳就业、稳金融、稳外贸、稳外资、稳投资、稳预期。“六稳”和“六保”—1)保就业、2)保基本民生、3)保市场结构、4)保粮食和能源安全、5)保产业供应链、6)保基层运转—这两个词已经正式成为2020年官方话语的一部分。我们看到报告中,每一个都有3次出现在政府工作报告中。除了这些之外,仅 “就业 ”就有39次单独提到,比去年多了9次(同样是在仅有一半篇幅的报告中)。这表明,考虑整个经济问题的范围内,保就业是政府特别关注的一个领域。

The grimness of the employment situation and the extreme challenges facing enterprises as they struggle to survive can be glimpsed in other areas of the work report this year, such as the dropping of GDP targets, talk of raising the intensity of efforts to lower taxes and fees (加大减税降费力度), promoting the lowering of operating costs for enterprises (降低企业生产经营成本), and talk of “doing everything possible to stabilize and expand employment” (千方百计稳定和扩大就业).

从今年工作报告中的其他方面,也可以看出就业形势的严峻性和企业生存面临的严峻挑战,比如下调GDP目标、加大减税降费力度、推动降低企业生产经营成本、千方百计稳定和扩大就业等。

Hong Kong, Taiwan and the US-China relationship

香港、台湾与中美关系

When we compare the People’s Daily front-pages in 2019 and 2020 announcing the government work report, we can see obvious similarities. But there is also an obvious point of difference that has to be noted, and this concerns the issue of Hong Kong, which is raised in a subhead: “Hearing the draft of the Civil Code and the draft decision of the National People’s Congress on the establishment and improvement of the legal system and enforcement mechanism of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region to safeguard national security.”

我们对比2019年和2020年人民日报头版公布的政府工作报告,可以看到明显的相似之处。但也有一个明显的不同点,这就涉及到香港的问题,在一个副标题中提到:“听取民法典草案,和全国人民代表大会关于建立和完善香港特别行政区保障国家安全的法律制度,和执法机制的决定草案”

Judging from the text of this year’s government work report, within the context of what are relatively brief and simple remarks on the relationships with Hong Kong and Taiwan, and with the United States, there is a much more severe treatment of Hong Kong. No longer do we see, as in the 2019 report and previous reports, language about “offering full support to the SAR governments and chief executives of Hong Kong and Macau in accordance with law.”

从今年的政府工作报告的文字来看,对香港和台湾措辞相对简略、简单,对美国的关系措辞比对香港要严厉得多。不再像2019年的报告一样,我们看到的是“全力支持香港、澳门特别行政区政府和行政长官依法施政”的措辞。

The chart below compares the statements in the 2019 and 2020 government work reports on the question of Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan.

下图为2019年和2020年政府工作报告中关于港澳台问题的表述对比。

To sum up, this year’s government work report maintains a tone toward the leader (领袖) of vowing loyalty and devotion, while it strikes a more realistic and practical tone on the relative economic difficulties facing the country. On Hong Kong, meanwhile, the tone of the work report suggests a clear change from last year’s “two meetings,” which came after the proposal by the Hong Kong government in February 2019 of the extradition bill, but before the onset of successive months of protests in June 2019. As these issues in the report are deliberated this week, we can expect to see these characteristics play out further.

综上所述,今年的政府工作报告,保持了对领袖誓死效忠的基调,而对国家面临的经济困难,则是更加现实和务实的基调。与此同时,在香港问题上,工作报告的基调与去年 “两会 ”有了明显的变化。“两会”是在2019年2月港府提出引渡法案之后,但在2019年6月连续几个月的抗议活动开始之前。随着本周对报告中的这些问题进行审议,我们期待这些特点进一步发挥。

NOTE: This article used the version of the text of the government work report as presented at the NPC, not subsequent versions appearing online, which may differ slightly.

:本文使用的是在全国人大会议上提出的政府工作报告文本的版本,而不是随后出现在网上的版本,可能会略有不同。

编辑:【喜马拉雅战鹰团】Edited by:【Himalaya Hawk Squad】