Italian & Northern Renaissance The cultural rebirth that occurred in Europe from roughly the fourteenth through the middle of the seventeenth centuries, based on the rediscovery of the literature of Greece and Rome.

PAINTERS

MICHELANGELO

(1475-1564) Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti was born on March 6, 1475 in Caprese, Italy. At the age of 13, young Michelangelo apprenticed to painter Domenico Ghirlandaio. Soon his talent grew attention to even Lorenzo de'Medici to which he will learn and inspire from. Some of Michelangelo's great works are Pietá & David, Sistine Chapel, and The Last Judgement.

PIETÁ & DAVID

Michelangelo carved a number of works in Florence during his time with the Medici, but in the 1490s he left Florence and briefly went to Venice, Bologna, and then to Rome, where he lived from 1496-1501. In 1497, a cardinal named Jean de Billheres commissioned Michelangelo to create a work of sculpture to go into a side chapel at Old St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. The resulting work – the Pieta – would be so successful that it helped launch Michelangelo’s career unlike any previous work he had done.

THE SISTINE CHAPEL

The Sistine Chapel is one of the most famous painted interior spaces in the world, and virtually all of this fame comes from the breathtaking painting of its ceiling from about 1508-1512. In 1508, Pope Julius II (reigned 1503-1513) hired Michelangelo to paint the ceiling of the chapel, rather than leaving it appear as it had. Michelangelo rose to the task to create one of the masterpieces of Western art. The ceiling program, which was probably formulated with the help of a theologian from the Vatican, is centered around several scenes from the Old Testament beginning with the Creation of the World and ending at the story of Noah and the Flood.

TITIAN

Tiziano Vecellio was born in Pieve di Cadore, a small town at the foot of the Dolomites on the Venetian side of the Alps. There is still no documentary evidence of Titian’s exact date of birth, but contemporary sources and his early stylistic development suggest that he was born around 1490.When he was about 10 years old, Titian arrived in Venice, then one of the wealthiest and most cosmopolitan cities in the world. Titian started his artistic training in the workshop of the mosaicist Sebastiano Zuccato. He later briefly joined Gentile Bellini’s workshop. After Gentile’s death in 1507, Titian joined the workshop of Gentile's brother, Giovanni Bellini, which at that time was the most important in Venice. He was also known as a painter of various profane subjects. These skills drew the attention of intellectually ambitious Italian dukes and aristocrats. He will soon be known as the greatest painter of 16-century Venice.

SACRED AND PROFANE LOVE

Sacred and Profane Love, Titian's masterpiece, was painted when he was about twenty-five to celebrate the marriage of the Venetian Nicolò Aurelio (coat of arms on the sarcophagus) and Laura Bagarotto in 1514. The bride dressed in white sitting beside Cupid is assisted by Venus in person. The figure with the vase of jewels symbolizes `fleeting happiness on earth' and the one bearing the burning flame of God's love symbolizes `eternal happiness in heaven'. The title is the result of a late 18th-century interpretation of the painting, which gives a moralistic reading of the nude figure, whereas the artist intended this to be an exaltation of both earthly and heavenly love. In fact in the Neoplatonic philosophy that Titian and his circle believed in contemplating the beauty of the creation led to an awareness of the divine perfection of the order of the cosmos.

GIORGIO VASARI

Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect, and writer. He was born on July 30,1511. When still a child, Vasari was the pupil of Guglielmo de Marcillat, but his decisive training was in Florence, where he enjoyed the friendship and patronage of the Medici family, trained within the circle of Andrea del Sarto, and became a lifelong admirer of Michelangelo. Vasari will paint The Temptation of Saint Jerome, Allegory of the Immaculate Conception, and The Deposition.

THE TEMPTATION OF SAINT JEROME

Crowded, muscular, and electric with acid tints, this scene could not be further from classical Renaissance decorum. Yet, Vasari introduced the saint's most conventional attributes from the lion at his feet, to the books representing Jerome's translation of the Bible, to the red standing for his traditional cardinalate. The temptations swirling around him are more familial than carnal.

WRITERS

MACHIAVELLI

Born in Florence, Italy on May 3rd in 1469 Machiavelli was a diplomat for 14 years inItaly's Florentine republic. After an unsuccessful attempt to organize a milita against the return of the medici family to power in 1512 became known machiavelli was tortured jailed and banished for an active role in political life. although a it was a dark time in his life he was away from politics and he was given the oppurtunity to read roman history and to write political treatises.

THE PRINCE

The prince was one of machiavellis most popular writings. the main theme of this short work is an extended explanation of how to acquire and maintain political power including 26 chapters and a dedication to lorenzo de medici

“And what physicians say about disease is applicable here: that at the beginning a disease is easy to cure but difficult to diagnose; but as time passes, not having been treated or recognized at the outset, it becomes easy to diagnose but difficult to cure. The same thing occurs in affairs of state; for by recognizing from afar the diseases that are spreading in the state (which is a gift given only to a prudent ruler), they can be cured quickly; but when they are not recognized and are left to grow to the extent that everyone recognizes them, there is no longer any cure.” — Niccolo Machiavelli

PETRARCH

Petrarch was a poet and scholar whose philosophy helped set the stage for the renaissance. Petrarch was born on July 20, 1304 in Arezzo, Tuscany. His writings were used to shape the Italian language. His writings were poems at first and then he started to write sonnets, letters, histories, and more. His writing was greatly admired during his lifetime and he was even crowned Romes poet laureate in 1341. Petrarchs legacy consisted of his writing that he left behind when he died which back in his time, helped move along the accomplishments of the renaissance giving his writings much value in history

AFRICA

Petrarch wrote his latin compostion "africa" which was a poem about the second punic war and was highly appraised by the people of his time and was later used to develop the italian language

Credits:

By: Raya and Dominic

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