Chapter 29 Spark Page By: brendan o'hara

Neural Control

Central Nervous System: includes the brain and spinal cord and controls all activities in your body through nerve tissues and neurons

Peripheral Nervous System: this is the nervous system that includes everything outside of the brain and spinal cord. This connects the central nervous system to the organs and limbs.

Somatic Nervous System: part of the peripheral nervous system associated with skeletal muscles and relays senses to the brain

Autonomic Nervous System: part of the peripheral nervous system that influences the function of internal organs by supplying smooth muscles and glands. The sympathetic nervous system includes the fight or flight response while the parasympathetic nervous System includes the rest and digest reaction.

Sensory Neuron: convert external stimuli from the environment into internal electrical pulses within the nervous system

Interneuron: create a link between neurons and the central nervous system by creating neural circuits

Motor Neuron: a neuron whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose axon exists outside the spinal cord to control his mainly muscles and glands

Neuromuscular Junction: what happens when a motor neuron and a muscle fiber make contact

Acetylcholine: a drug or chemical that functions in the brain and body as a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells

Norepinephrine: a chemical that functions in the human body and brain as a neurotransmitter.

epinephrine: a hormone that plays an important role in the fight-or-flight response by increasing blood flow to muscles and is very similar to Norepinephrine

Synapse: a connection between two nerve cells that makes a tiny gap in which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White matter vs. Gray matter: white matter is bundles of axons that connect multiple pieces of gray matter which consists of neuronal cell bodies

Cerebral cortex: the outermost layer of the cerebrum that plays an important role in consciousness. It is separated by the longitudinal fissure that divides the cerebrum into the left and right cerebral hemispheres.

Limbic system: a set of structures located on either side of the thalamus in the brain that supports a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and olfaction

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