Totalitarianism: Communism Realized by Erik Piccinini & Paolo Russo

A little introduction first...

The term "communism" comes from the latin "communis" which means common, universal. This is the right one to define a society whose main task is to abolish money, private propriety, social classes and the state. It is a philosophical movement and also social, political and economic. Communism is mostly based on Marxism, anarchism and all the political ideologies grouped around both. Communism is against an economic ideology called Capitalism. The last one has two major classes:

  1. WORKING CLASS: Includes everyone who must work to survive.
  2. CAPITALIST CLASS: Anyone who makes a profit from the working class' tasks
Communist star

The ideology of communism:

  • System of government is totalitarian
  • Property is owned by the state
  • Wealth is distributed equally
  • Education and health care are provided by the state
  • Press controlled is owned by the state
  • All members of society are considered to be equal
  • Focus is on the progress of the community
The late 18th and early 19th centuries was a time of immense social change, not just political revolution but the beginning of the industrial revolution. In the middle of the 19th century, from around 1840 Karl Marx and Frederick Engels have just developed a theory for explaining social change and political revolution. This movement was called Marxism. It is a system of economic, social and political philosophy based on ideas that take the social change from the economic side. The key of Marxism is that the production exists thanks to the employment that is going to influence the political life as well.

Then there is something else: communism expands its movement also to Stalinism...

Stalinism indeed is a way more violent movement. When in 1924 Lenin died, Stalin did take his task to guide the URSS. This movement is based on communism as well. Stalin's policies included rapid industrialization, collectivization of agriculture, powerful bureaucracy and too much centralization of power consequently making the USSR an authoritarian state. The marxist idea just died with him because he wanted the USSR to be the only socialist state.Stalin, as head of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, consolidated his absolute power in 1930 with a Great Purge of the party that claimed to expel opportunists and counter-revolutionary infiltrators. Those targeted by the purge were often expelled from the party, however more severe measures ranged from banishment to the Gulags were taken.

...and to Maoism.

Maoism or Mao Zedong Thought is another kind of political thought that claims to be an anti-revolutionist form of Marxist communist theory.

It is important to know that this political thought has developed vividly from the ideology framed by the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong who lived between 1893 and 1976.

Mao Zedong

Maoism believed that a proletarian revolution was necessary to change the society for a better tomorrow. However, instead of a proletariat revolution of the urban workers, Maoism focused on motivating the farming population in China.

The essential difference between Maoism and other forms of Communism is that it claimed that peasants should be the essential revolutionary class in China.

That is because China was a hugely agricultural community at the time.

Then...

...a little mind map...

Sources:

  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Communism (for general information)
  • https://www.nyu.edu/projects/ollman/docs/what_is_marxism.php3
  • https://www.britannica.com/topic/Stalinism
  • http://www.encyclopedia.com/philosophy-and-religion/other-religious-beliefs-and-general-terms/miscellaneous-religion/maoism
  • https://www.britannica.com/topic/Maoism
  • MilleDuemila -¬†Un mondo al plurale, Valerio Castronovo (History Book)

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