Klinefelter's syndrome is when a male is born with an extra x chromosome. This means the male has and unequal amount of estrogen to testosterone with estrogen having a high percent.
Down Syndrome is a mutation in the 21st chromosome causing the person to look (disabled) and having intellectual disabilities. This doesn't mean that the person is not smart it just means they don't understand things or comprehend like we do.
Colorblindness is a hereditary mutation in which a person can't tell the difference in distinct colors. This person will most likely only see shades of grey, black and white. There is no solution to colorblindness; the people just have to deal with it.
Turner's disease is when a female is born with only one x chromosome. There is no serious side effects or any problems with this. The female will still have all the feminine qualities like other girls do; this girl is just considered a lesser of a female due to the lack of one x chromosome.