The Bakke Case and AffIrmative Action and Riots in floria By Jackson Pierce

The Bakke Case and Affirmative Action

Affrimative Action was created by governments, businesses, universities, and other institutions to overcome the effects of past discrimination. John F. Kennedy issued an executive order which required America's institutions to create equal opportunities for all.

This was created to give blacks and other minorities the same opportunities as whites.

Affirmative Action was into consideration with:

Admissions to universities


And promotion opportunities

This new chance given to the blacks and other minorities wasn't widely accepted.

Whites started to complain that the blacks would take all the jobs and other opportunities even though they were less qualified in some positions.

They said a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional.

University of California then had to accept more blacks and other minorities into its programs.

This meant that less white people would be accepted into these programs.

The case involved the admissions practices of the Medical School of the University of California at Davis.

The medical school, at University of California, reserved 16 seats out of 100 for blacks and other minorities for the entering class.

Allan Bakke, a white applicant, to this medical program at University of California, was denied twice admission. His MCAT scores, GPA, and benchmark scores were "significantly higher" than those of some minority applicants recently admitted.

Affirmative Action was tested out through a Supreme Court case Bakke v. University of California.

Bakke stated that the Affirmative Action policies had kept him from being accepted at the University of California and were violating his rights.

He sued the university and caught the nation's attention.

A five-member majority in the Supreme Court decided that Bakke's civil rights were violated when he was denied admission into the medical program.

After the court's decision, a press report from the Tri- State Defender states, "...Yet there is also a compelling need, recognized by most Americans, to eliminate the vestiges of racial segregation and to compensate for past and continuing injustices. .."

The court ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional. However it determined that using Affirmative Action to accept more minority applicants was constitutional.

Even after though Bakke "won", more and more people were realizing that blacks and other minorities needed to be compensated for all the injustices that they had faced.

The purpose of adding this last section in the report is to show more Americans that blacks and other minorities deserve better opportunities since they've face a lot of hardship.

The report could have been coming from someone who supported the civil rights movement and wanted more Americans to realize that minorities deserved more rights.

Another source, from the Chicago Tribune, stated, "...Let me suggest that it is more than a fringe group in this country that rejects reverse discrimination as a public policy and believes that qualifications -- not race -- should be the basis for advancement..."

This means that there was a large group of US citizens that thought it was wrong that race determined advancement in companies and universities.

This source argued that it should be qualifications that determined an individual's future and that they were not alone.

The purpose of adding this into the report was to show that there was a serious division between whites and blacks.

During the court decision.

The court's decision, when Bakke won, hurt the civil rights movement.

But, more and more people were aware of the cause for blacks and other minorities.

This meant that more people were "willing" to back up the civil rights movement, and in turn help the movement.

The Riots in Florida

Overton was a historically black neighborhood. It was a vibrant center of African American culture and life.

The town was very close-knit and the residents were very connected.

But in the late 1960s, they were devastated because Miami created an urban renewal plan.

This plan placed Overtown in the path of an interstate highway.

The residents of Overtown couldn't do anything since they lacked the political power to fight the plan.

The construction of the interstate highway through Overtown...

Displaced half the neighborhood.

A total of 20,000 people.

And destroyed a community.

Although this urban plan was supposed to make Miami more of an attraction, it did directly hurt the black people.

It's hard to tell if they created this plan with intentions of hurting the black people, making Miami a tourist attraction, or both.

Although Miami did experience an economic boom in the late 1970s, black citizens did not benefit from it at all.
  1. Blacks were twice as likely to be unemployed
  2. New immigrants from Cuba and Haiti came to Miami looking for jobs.
  3. These immigrants took jobs from blacks.

Although these factors contributed to the riots, the main reason was due to an African American Marine Corps veteran and successful salesman being murdered by police officers.

Arthur McDuffie

He was murdered after a high-speed chase.

The officers claimed that McDuffie died from injuries he got crashing his motorcycle; a cover-up was revealed.

McDuffie was beaten to death by these officers.

Even though there was clear evidence against the officers, they were cleared of all charges. (All jurors were white).


Outraged by the result of the case, blacks started rioting- burning cars and attacking whites.

The riots went on for three days- 17 were dead and over 100 were arrested.

President Carter set out to help rebuild this area, but the black's area still faced injustice and were not helped out with over 100 million dollars in riot damage.

After riots.

People were devastated by the results of the trial.

This is shown through a series of quotes given by newspapers.

""There is no justice for black people," Raymond Fauntroy, the head of the Miami Southern Christian Leadership Conference said. "It was not a fair trial...""

The point of view was from black priests and other religious African Americans who believe that there was no chance for McDuffie and the blacks, it was always going to go the white man's way.

Another person said, ""The black community is still treated as non-people -- like animals," said Athalie Range, one of the city's most respected black leaders. "The black community feels it has nowhere to turn in an instance of this kind...""

The purpose of adding this quote to a series of quotes was to show how distraught people were after the trial. Even one of the most highly respected people couldn't even show any kind of hope. This shows how people were starting to get sick of being on the losing side.

The trial made the black citizens of Miami mad, inciting violence.

In turn, the riots did not help the civil rights movement.

They showed American citizens that they were sick of being treated unjustly.

In the end the black people were still in the same situation.

They weren't aided by the government and they had to rely on their own communities to build themselves up.

Created By
Jackson Pierce

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