Events That Lead Up To The Revolution:
French and Indian War - The French and Indian war was a hard fought battle that left the British with a huge victory. They gained a ton of land in North America but kept it all to themselves. In order to protect themselves, they wouldn’t let the colonists leave so that they didn’t have to send more soldiers over to the new land. This made the colonists extremely angry and it made them want to get out as soon as possible.
"The French and Indian War: The Battle in North America"
Stamp Tax: After the French and Indian war, the British had one of the largest empires, but they also had one of the biggest debts. George Greenville created the Navigation Law, Sugar act, and Quartering Act, but all three of these had died down soon after. Therefore, the stamp tax was created which was to help support the military forces. This was a huge difference for the Americans so they got very angry about it. The acts had also went against the basic rights of an Englishman so this got them very stirred up and the act had become one of their main targets.
Committees of Correspondence: The committees of correspondence were emergency governments established in response of the British Policies. In 1770, King George III was attempting to bring in the power of monarchy with his multiple “yes men”, including Lord North. The Townshend acts were created but failed to change anything, only to make an even bigger rebellious group because of the events in it that hurt English economy. The Parliament got rid of most of the Townshend duties, but kept all taxes on tea. This put even more fuel on the fire and lead up to Samuel Adams organizing the first committees of correspondence. The committees of correspondence grew bigger and spread throughout eighty other towns. They all worked together but it made the British extremely aggravated. Muskets and other weapons were gathered immediately and open shots were fired. Many Americans were killed and wounded but when they pushed on to Concord, they suffered heavy losses. This officially declared war.
"The Committees of Correspondence"
Boston Tea Party: The British East India Company had fallen upon a huge problem: Bankruptcy. They had 17 million pounds of unsold tea, so they started to sell it at a very low price. The colonists were deceived and thought of this as a trick for them to accept taxes so they got extremely angry. The Colonists started to fight back but Governor Thomas Hutchinson refused to budge. In 1773, several Bostonian's went onto the ships disguised as Indians and dumped the remaining contents of the tea into the harbor. This was known officially known as the Boston Tea Party. After this act was finished, the colonists were very proud of themselves and the Britain's had absolutely despised the colonists for what they had done which meant even more conflict between the two.
Intolerable Acts: The parliament passed multiple acts that would have to do with chastising the Colonists. This is what really got the colonists riled up and made them unstoppable. These acts were known as “the Massacre of American Liberty”. The most impactful act was the Boston Port act which closed the port until all of the damages were paid. Some other intolerable acts limited the rights that were traditional in Massachusetts, restricted town meeting, made some officials that killed colonists go to trial, and gave the power to lodge soldiers anywhere. They also passed the Quebec act which covered French subjects in Canada and guaranteed their religion. To the French, this was very shocking and to the Americans, the act was very abnoxious. This made the anti-Catholics upset because they had extended Catholic Jurisdiction. This built even more rivalry between the two
The Parliament Passing the "Intolerable Acts"
Battles in the War:
Lexington and Concord: Tension between the colonies and British had been building up for several years, but the battle of Lexington and Concord is really what kicked it all off. On April 18, 1775, the British led some of their troops to Concord but the militia leaders heard before they reached Concord. The colonies quickly prepared an ambush and headed down to intercept the redcoats. The British had been deceived and were immediately attacked so they hastily retreated under fire. The Americans killed almost three hundred redcoats while the British only killed around 90. The Redcoat’s mission had been completely destroyed and they lost multiple men and weapons.
"The Battle of Lexington and Concord"
The Battle of Quebec: On December 31, 1775, the British sent two groups, one to travel on the St. Lawrence river and one group to travel by foot, to Quebec, to attack the Americans. The ones by sea reached there first and there was not enough men or supplies to take on a full attack. When the army by foot reached Quebec, a snowstorm hit and the American’s rifles were useless. The British then captured almost half of the Americans and the Americans then surrendered. This was one of the first and biggest defeats for the Americans in which they lost a ton of supplies and men.
Siege of Yorktown: In the fall of 1781, a combined American force of Colonial and French troops laid siege to the British Army at Yorktown. This attack was led by George Washington and French General Comte de Rochambeau, they began their final attack on October 14th, which resulted in capturing two British defenses and leading to the surrender of British General Lord Cornwallis and nearly 9,000 troops. Yorktown proved to be the final battle of the American Revolution, and the British began peace negotiations shortly after the American victory.
Peace Conference at Paris: After the war, the Britons were incredibly tired of the war and losses and wanted to put an end to it as soon as possible. In March 1782, Lord North’s ministry had collapsed which caused a lot of stress on the Britain's part. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay gathered at Paris to negotiate the Peace Treaty. The treaty was signed in 1783 and resulted in the United States gaining independence but cut the French completely out of it. The Britons were extremely generous in the terms of boundaries and land. Both the Americans and Britons were satisfied with these terms and left as semi-happy groups of people.
A New Nation: The British had been extremely generous and granted the Colonies with enormous areas. The Americans created a separate treaty in order to create an alliance with the French since they had cut them out of the first one. The French were very relieved because a ton of weight was lifted off of their shoulders when the treaty was signed. Mostly just the Americans benefited from the war, treaty, and the whole entire situation which left them off as a brand new nation with a whole new start.
"Prewar and Postwar Boundaries"