Geography Field Work Report Mackenzie ma 8e

Map of Mornignton Penisula

Map of penisula
3 locations

Cape Schanck

Cape Schanck Broadwalk
google maps


The headland at Cape Schanck is quite different to the others. It was a coastal land 60million years ago, though the near by volcano erupted and the lava flowed onto the land. After the lava hardened into basalt land, sediments of sand and shell laid on the ocean, it built up and was shown as a sedimentary base during the ice age, because the sea retreated and exposed the sea floor. Sand brought by wind had rested and formed an ancient limestone sand dune cupping on top of the basalt. After ice age, ocean water invaded the land, swallowing partial of the headlands.


The stack at Cape Schanck is where the ocean tides used be millions of years ago, before the ocean invaded and eroded the rocks. The process of attrition was the main erosion process at Cape Schanck. Stacks are created by wave erosion, they are formed when part of headland is eroded by hydraulic action, the force of sea water crashing against rocks. They are disconnected to the mainland. Rock formations at Cape Schanck are covered in brown and yellow soil, they are the remaining of the volcanical ash.


At cape Schanck, there's evidence of underwater plants like kelp, as they are washed up onto the beach. There are a variation of on land vegetations, too, like spinifex, New Zealand spinach, and marram grass, these grass can provide habitats and food sources to animals like snakes, birds. All plants near the coasts are salt resistant, so the high salinity of sea water won't damage their growths and healths.

Coastal process:

Attrition cause smooth pebbles lying on the beach
Weathering abrasion
Hydraulic action

Unsatisfactory human impacts:


Human has been destroying the environment greatly over the past few years by littering, and that's no exceptions to Cape Schanck. Whether it's just few pieces or not, it does negative impacts to the area. Signs and warning should've been put up to warn people, also, more rubbish bins could've been placed around the braodwalk.


Gunnamatta broad walk


Beaches are made up of eroded materials that has been transported from elsewhere and then deposited by the sea. The component of beach at Gunnamatta is quite different from the ones at Cape Schanck, from the pictures we can see that Gunnamatta is a sandy beach rather than volcanic pebbles at Cape Schanck. This beach extends both ways along the coastline, north to St. Andrews and south to Boag Rocks.



As this beach is frequently used during the summer, it has a reasonably protected dune system. Dunes protect the entire beach from eroding. It contains a beach berm, primary dune , Secondary dune, and a tertiary dune. In the primary dune, there's scarce amount of plants, mostly damaged by human impacts. Pioneer stabilizing grasses, small shrubs, and low growing trees mainly colonized in the secondary dune. In the tertiary dunes, it is covered with larger trees, these had different levels of understory of the big trees.


Coastal vegetation play an important role in maintaining the integrity of our dune systems – they act as a windbreak, trapping deposited sand particles and stabilising the dune system. Without vegetation, this natural protective barrier would be lost to the effects of wind and wave erosion. There's large amounts of marram grass, their roots can hold sand together, avoiding blow outs.

Scarce Vegetation on primary dune

Coastal process:

Waves aren't able to flow into the pathways of rip currents
We can detect them when waves are going in angles
Result of constructive and destructive waves; waves can rip off plants

Unsatisfactory human impacts:

Sitting on primary dunes

During summer, people may choose to sit on the dunes, therefore plants die due to the constant weight of human been put on them. Others may walk up and further into the dunes, creating an unnecessary path, exposing bare sand to the wind. Fences and signs should be placed at the start of primary dune.

Car parks and toilets

Car parks and toilets are built near the tertiary dune, maybe even on it. They may have designed like so because for the convenience of human, there's a shorter distance to walk to the beach. However, it does not mean it is a positive thing for the dune system. A managing strategy during building facilities are to put them away from dunes.

St.Andrews Estate

Beach of St. Andrews
Map of estate


Rock pool

This mini wave cut platform is lying on the edge of the tide, it's size also depends on the tides, so another name for it is tide pool. These pools can vary from size and deepness, different species of animals may inhabitat in the tide pools suiting their needs, offering a better chance of survival for the fragile marine animals and organisms. Rock pools are usually deeper when near low tides, and shallow ones are near high tides.


The beach at St. Andrews are surrounded by wave cut platform, this feature dissimilar itself from the rest of the bare sandy beach. As mentioned earlier, these rock pools are homes to fragile organisms, as a result of so, the structure of food chain can be quite different, wider range of species can be found.

Dunes and vegetations

Revegetated dunes

The dunes at St. Andrews covers a rather large area, held together by different coastal plants. Dunes are critical to stabilizing a beach, they protect land from potential ravages by storm waves from the sea.The soils in coastal areas are usually de cient in major nutrients, highly saline and generally lacking in water, and consequently are very harsh on plants. They adapt to their conditions better than inland plant, especially during dry seasons. These plants have the ability to delay germination, huge amount of salt spray and dehydration. Coastal plants need a large quantity of seeds in order to recover from any damage to the dunes and ecology environment.

Coastal process:

Huge amount of weathering created Wave cut platforms
Hydraulic action
Constructive waves built up sand dunes, destructive waves ripped plants out

Coastal management:

Putting signs to warn people about marine animals and birds recover
Long walks to protect dunes

Unsatisfactory human impacts:

Residents create paths

The housing estate is located 100-200m away from the beach berm, this brings inconveniency for the human to access the beach, however, it brings a positive change to the health dune systems. Though on the other hand, means that we chose to make small path that restricted human into the dunes and destroying vegetations. So this allows the plant to flourish, the less number of the path, the more growth the vegetations will be. As a result, this act brings a better future of a long term positive affect for the dune.

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