Chapter 29 Nicholas whitemAn

Central Nervous System:

The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. It is the main control center of all the bodies activities. Sends messages within the body.

Peripheral Nervous System:

The portion of the nervous system that is outside the brain and spinal cord. All the neurons in the body or nerve cells, that cover the entire body. Gives us the ability to detect things from outside the body. Connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body.

Somatic Nervous System:

Part of the peripheral nervous system. The function is the voluntary movement of the muscles and organs and reflex movements. In the process of voluntary movement, sensory neurons carry impulses to the brain and the spinal cord.

Autonomic Nervous System:

Regulates the functions of our internal organs (the viscera) such as the heart, stomach and intestines. The ANS is part of the peripheral nervous system and it also controls some of the muscles within the body


Part of the autonomic nervous system functions include sexual arousal, salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion, and defecation. The PSNS primarily uses acetylcholine as its neurotransmitter.


Part of the autonomic nervous system primary process is to stimulate the body's fight-or-flight response. It is, however, constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis.

Sensory Neuron:

Sensory neurons are nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses. For example, some sensory neurons respond to tactile stimuli and can activate motor neurons in order to achieve muscle contraction.


Interneurons create neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system. Create the network of neurons throughout the body and how evrery nerve is connected.

Motor Neuron:

is a nerve cell whose cell body is located in the spinal cord and whose axon projects outside the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands. Creates movement and feeling in limbs.

Neuromuscular Junction:

is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber. It is at the neuromuscular junction that a motor neuron is able to transmit a signal to the muscle fiber, causing muscle contraction.


Acetylcholine is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.

Norepinephrine and Epinephrine:

  1. Epinephrine, produced by the adrenal medulla, causes either smooth muscle relaxation in the airways or contraction of the smooth muscle in arterioles, which results in blood vessel constriction in the kidneys, decreasing or inhibiting blood flow to the nephrons.
  2. Norepinephrine, produced by the adrenal medulla, is a stress hormone that increases blood pressure, heart rate, and glucose from energy stores; in the kidneys, it will cause constriction of the smooth muscles, resulting in decreased or inhibited flow to the nephrons.


a junction between two nerve cells, consisting of a minute gap across which impulses pass by diffusion of a neurotransmitter.

White Matter:

Inner part of the brain is squishier than the grey matter on the outside of the brain.

Grey Matter:

Darker than white Matter and is harder and more protective than the inner part of the brain.

Cerebral Cortex:

the outer layer of the cerebrum. Composed of folded grey matter. Main protective area of the inner brain.

Lobes of the Brain:

  1. Parietal
  2. Occipital
  3. Temporal
  4. Frontal lobe

Limbic System:

limbic system include the amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, and cingulate gyrus. The amygdala is the emotion center of the brain, while the hippocampus plays an essential role in the formation of new memories about past experiences.

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