Convergent boundaries move two plates toward each other and creates landforms. When a convergent boundary moves it puts a type of stress of the plate called compression. It can form deep ocean trenches, volcanoes, island arcs, submarine mountain ranges,fault lines, and earthquakes. When oceanic crust and continental crust merge, it can form ocean trenches and volcanoes. When two pieces of continental crust merge, it can form mountains. In 1867, a Manhattan earthquake struck Riley County, Kansas and was measured 5.1 on a seismic scale. The earthquake's epicenter was by Manhattan and is the strongest earthquake to originate in the state. The earthquake fractured walls, downed chimneys, and interfered with the stability of structures, even loosening stones, and injuries were reported.
When a divergent boundary occurs beneath oceanic crust the rising convection current below lifts the lithosphere producing a mid-ocean ridge. Magma flows from a mid-ocean ridge. The magma then solidifies and creates crust. This process repeats itself. When a divergent boundary occurs beneath a thick continental plate, the pull-apart is not vigorous enough to create a clean, single break through the thick plate material. Earthquakes occur as a result of this fracturing and movement. While a divergent boundary is separating, it puts a type of stress on it called tension.
Transform faults can be distinguished from the typical strike-slip faults because the sense of movement is in the opposite direction. A strike-slip fault is a simple offset, however, a transform fault is formed between two different plates, each moving away from the spreading center of a divergent plate boundary. A small number of transform faults cut continental lithosphere. The most famous example of this is the San Andreas Fault Zone of western North America in California. This produces a type of stress called shear.