• Thought Essay #1 graded
  • No more quizzes- Midterm in two weeks


  • Identify types of arguments
  • Identify components of Toulmin Model
  • Identify refutation process
  • SPAR Debate implementing arguments constructed via Toulmin Model & preparing a brief

Types of Arguments


  • Claim
  • Grounds
  • Warrant
  • Backing
  • Modality
  • Rebuttal


  • A statement you are asking the other person to accept.
  • Either change of action or change of thought.
  • What’s the point of your argument?
  • Ex: You should get a hearing aid


  • The support for your claim
  • examples, facts, statistics, testimonies
  • Ex. Over 70% of people over the age of 65 years old have hearing difficulty


  • The inferential leap that connects the grounds to claim
  • Inferential leap: implicit/unspoken reasoning
  • Ex. A hearing aid helps most people hear better
  • Exercise #1:
  • Claim: My neighbors car is on fire
  • Grounds: There is smoke coming from my neighbors car
  • What is the warrant?


What counts as credible sources?

.com, .edu, .gov


  • Resolution: Animal testing should be banned in the U.S.
  • Team 1 & 2 = AFF
  • Team 3 & 4 = NEG
  • Directions:
  • In your teams, fill out the worksheet by developing at least two arguments using the Toulmin model for your side
  • Up to 15min to do research and prepare as a team

Refuting Arguments

What is refutation?

Refutation Process

1. Listen carefully

2. Critically evaluate the arguments

  • Determine what the advocate is arguing
  • Evaluate the reasoning and/or grounds they use

3. Formulate a response

  • Be strategic- what is the arguer’s weakest point?
  • Consider the situation and audience
  • Form a brief (series of arguments and supporting evidence for a specific point of clash)
  • Anticipate what the opponent might argue (consider stock issues)

4. Present the response

  • Tell the audience what point you are refuting
  • Support your refutation- how can you support your claim?
  • We try to do this all the time - SPAR debates
  • Two types of ways to refute - declarative and questioning


  • (Signaling) My opponent argued that the death penalty deters crime.
  • (State) In fact, the death penalty increases crime.
  • (Support) According to a nationwide study conducted by Professor Wiggins in 2002, violent crime has actually increased in states with the death penalty while crime has decreased in states without the death penalty.
  • (Importance) If this study is true, and the methodology is certainly sound, then the central justification for why they say we need the death penalty has no merit.


  • Resolution: Animal testing should be banned in the U.S.
  • Team 1 & 2(AFF)
  • Team 3 & 4 (NEG)
  • In the same team as earlier, anticipate two arguments that the other team might make and prepare responses
  • In the end, your team should have two arguments AND two counterarguments ready for the debate
  • Up to 15min prep time


Resolution: Animal testing should be banned in the U.S.

Team 1&2 (AFF) vs 3&4 (NEG)

  • Team 1 get together w/ Team 2
  • Team 3 get together w/ Team 4
  • Game plan together, share args, decide who is speaking when
  • AFF think about plan and definitions
  • PREP time 5min

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