protein synthesis web page project jennifer nava romero

what is protein synthesis? the process by which amino acids are linearly arranged into proteins through the involvement of ribosomal RNA, transfer RNA, messenger RNA, and various enzyme

what organelles are involved? nucleus, ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus,

What kind of organisms use protein synthesis? it occurs in the eukaryotic cells

Why is it important for living things? protein synthesis is important because with out it we wouldn't have proteins or enzymes

transcription

What are the steps of transcription? step one RNA polymerase initiates process by binding to specific regions called promoters found at start of gene sequences step two base pairing rules for RNA G-C and U-A step three transcription continues until RNA polymerase reads a terminal signal in the DNA sequence step four once completely transcribed (termination sequence is reached) RNA molecules detach and move to cyoplasm for protein synthesis

What organelles are involved? the nucleus and the ribosomes.

Are there any other molecules involved with transcription besides DNA and RNA? ATP

Explain base pair rules between DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA strands

base pairing rules of DNA: A-T and C-G

base paring rules for RNA: A-U and C-G

When does this happen? transcription happens when inter-phase occurs

Where does this happen in the cell? transcription happens in the nucleus

Can DNA leave? Can mRNA leave? Explain why or why not. DNA can not leave the nucleus because it is to big (double stranded) and RNA can leave the nucleus because it much smaller (single stranded)

What are the steps of translation? Step 1 DNA unwinds Step 2 One side of DNA "codes for a protein" Step 3 Genetic code of DNA is a triplet code of 3 nucleotides or bases Step 4 Each triplet is specific for the coding of a single amino acid Step 5 Sequence of triplet codes on DNA will specify the amino acid sequence on the protein Step 6 Major step is the synthesis of the coded "messenger" molecule - mRNA Step 7 mRNA is "transcribed" from DNA by complementary base pairing (mRNA has no thymine, which is replaced by uracil) Step 8 mRNA passes out of the cytoplasm to the ribosome

What organelles are involved? ribosomes , cytoplasm, and ER

Are there any other molecules involved with transcription besides DNA and RNA? ATP

Explain the role of tRNA (how does it know to bring the correct amino acid???) tRNA breaks mRNA into groups of 3 called codon,tRNA anti-codon is complimentary to mRNA codon,then translate mRNA codon into amino acids , and amino acids linked together by the ribosome to form a poly-peptide chain

Explain the base pair rules between anticodons and codons of tRNA and mRNA? the base paring rules for anti-codons and codons are A-U and C-G

When does this happen? this happens when the strands are linked back together

Where does this happen in the cell? in the cytoplasm and ribosome

Credits:

Created with images by jurvetson - "Replicating Nanomachines"

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