The Dred Scott Decision (1857)
Dred Scott traveled to a free state, claimed he was in a free territory, he should be freed. Chief disagreed, he was still property of his owner, slaves would never have American Citizenship. They said slaves are not citizens, slaves couldn't sue in the first place.
Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
Lincoln gave this order and it declared all slaves were free in Confederate states. The problem was the Union (Lincoln) had no power of Confederate states. This was not effective.
13th Amendment (1865)
Lincoln wanted to end slavery in the US. Needed to make an amendment to do this. 13th amendment was passed and banned any form of slavery, it canceled out old laws that supported it. 27 out of 36 states approved it.
14th Amendment (1868)
The Dred Scott decision said slaves would never be able to become US citizens. The 14th amendment said anyone, no matter what, was an American citizen if they were born in the US.
15th Amendment (1870)
Before this, African Americans couldn't vote, even if they weren't slaves. This amendment made it illegal to deny another man the right to vote based on race. (All men could vote)
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
The supreme court ruled that segregation was ok as long as African Americans are given equal accommodations as others. Separate water fountains, medical care and public schools.
Brown Vs. Board of Education (1954)
The supreme court ruled in this case that segregation in public schools, separate but equal facilities, was unconstitutional. This law made it possible for black and white students to attend school together.
The Montgomery Bus Boycott (1957)
In the US, separate seats on the bus were for black and for white people. Rosa Parks refused to give her seat up to a white man and was arrested. For a year African Americans boycotted city buses. On December 21, 1956, Supreme Court declared segregated buses were unconstitutional.
Little Rock Nine (1957)
The supreme court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, many schools still didn’t allow black students to attend schools with white students. In 1957, nine black students tried to attend Little Rock Central High School. The governor tried to prevent this, President Eisenhower overruled this decision.
Many areas were segregated. On Feb. 1, 1960, 4 black college students sat at a segregated lunch counter in North Carolina,. The restaurant would not sever them, students refused to get up. Sit-ins were peaceful protest.
Ruby Bridges (1960)
Ruby Bridges was the first African-American child to attend an all-white public elementary school in the South. Was chosen to attend the school and was escorted by federal marshals. Many parents pulled their kids from the school but Ruby graduated high school and college.
Freedom Riders (1961)
Freedom riders were people who rode buses to segregated areas of the south to protest and challenge laws, were of many races who all believed segregation was wrong.
James Meredith (1962)
He applied and got accepted to the University of Mississippi, but when the school learned his rave they rejected it. The supreme court ruled he could attend. He eventually graduated with a degree
“I have a Dream” Speech (1963)
A speech given to a crowed of over 250,00 people who gathered because of the March on Washington for jobs and freedom, called for citizens to end racism, speech and march encouraged passage of laws to end racism.