In some areas, it was more efficient in that era to use a machine called a boat, upper left, to create cast-in-place concrete pipe, an efficient, economical and durable product. Concrete is placed inside the tray on top to create a concrete pipe, then the pipe is pushed to the back concave form to harden and dry, in a continuous process. The front part of the machine is used in creating the outside of the pipe, and the back part is used to create the inside of the pipe. The bottom right photo shows the view from inside the boat looking out into the trench.
Marsha Reed, P.E., former Senior Civil Engineer with the City of Lubbock, Texas, said she was impressed with the pipe material selections, and how those materials interacted according to the construction methods used. “This greatly aided resolving the constructability issues,” she said.