1857 The Dred Scott Decision: A slave that traveled north with his owner. Since they were in free country, he asked to be freed. A chief justice disagreed. The justice said that he was Dred Scott was still the property of his owner. He also said that slaves would never have american citizenship. The decision was he would not be freed.
1863 The Emancipation Proclamation: President Lincoln gave this order. It stated that all slaves previously owned, were free in the confederate states. Lincoln commanded that this be followed, but since he had no power over the confederate states this request was not effective.
Lincoln trying to give freedom to the slaves
1865 The 13th amendment: Lincoln wanted to end slavery for good. The 13th amendment declared that any form of slavery was banned and it canceled all the other laws about slavery. It was approved in 27\36 states.
1868 The 14th amendment: Back in the Dred Scott decision, the chief justice said that slaves would never have American Citizenship. This amendment changed that. It states that anyone, no matter race or gender could be an American Citizen if born in America.
1870 The 15th amendment: This amendment gave all men the right to vote. Especially African-American men, because even if they weren't slaves, they still didn't have the right to vote.
1896 Separate but equal: This was the Supreme Court case pf Plessy vs. Ferguson. The Court said segregation was completely fine, so long as African-Americans were given equal lifestyles. This made sure that everything was separated, from water fountains to shops to schools to medics.
1954 Brown vs. The board of education: The Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools should be gone. This law made it possible for African-American children and White children to go to school together.
Colored and White Classroom
1955 The Montgomery Bus Boycott: On buses at the time, there were seats for colored people in the back, and whites in the front. A brave woman named Rosa Parks refused to give up a seat in the front for a white man. She later went to jail for this. For more than a year, African-Americans boycotted the public buses and refused to ride them. The Supreme Court soon abolished all rules pertaining to where people should sit on a bus.
Martin Luther King boycotting a local bus
1957 Little Rock Nine: Even though the Supreme Court banished the laws about segregation in public schools, a lot of school forbid African-American children from entering.One day, nine colored students entered Little Rock High School. The governor of Arkansas tried to stop them, but President Eisenhower overruled him. Those nine brave high school students went to that school until they graduated.
The Original Little Rock Nine
February 1960 Sit-ins: Many restaurants and cafes still remained segregated. Four high schoolers once sat down at the counter and ordered politely. The waiters and others didn't serve them and angrily asked them to leave, but the teens kept their stance. These peaceful protests happened all over the country from then on. Colored people would get physically hurt, spit on, and ignored.
November 1960 Ruby Bridges: Ruby Bridges was a first grader that was accepted into a former all-white school. She and her mother were escorted by police officers to her new school. Many other parents pulled their children out of this school for just this reason. Ruby later became deeply involved with Civil Rights History later in her life.
Ruby Bridges goes to school
1961 Freedom Riders: Freedom Riders were people who rode buses down to parts of the segregated south to protest their rights. They traveled far and wide to get their message literally across the south.
Freedom Riders Memorial Plaque
1962 James Meredith: James Meredith was a man of color that applied to the University of Mississippi and got accepted. The college then realized his ethnicity and tried to rebut his application. James took the situation to The Supreme Court. The Supreme Court overruled Ole' Miss. James got in and graduated with a degree in political science.
James Meredith Graduation
1963 "I have a dream" speech: Martin Luther King Jr. delivered his famous speech of I have a dream to a crowd bigger than 250,000 people. This happened directly after the march on Washington. This speech inspired many, and hoped to inspire the president to make laws against discrimination. MLK told everyone to end racism.