REFORM MOVEMENTS IN THE MID 1800s By:Brian powell and Omar Omeira

Where and when did the reform movement begin?

Where did the reform movement originate

The reform movements that arose during the antebellum period in America focused on specific issues: temperance, abolishing imprisonment for debt, pacifism, antislavery, abolishing capital punishment, amelioration of prison conditions (with prison's purpose reconceived as rehabilitation rather than punishment), the humane treatment of animals, the humane and just treatment of Native Americans, the establishment of public institutions for the care of the destitute, orphans, blind, and mentally ill, the establishment of public schools, the abolition of tobacco use, vegetarianism, health reform, homeopathic medicine, woman's rights including, at first, especially the establishment of a woman's right to own property apart from her husband and her right to sue for divorce), and the amelioration of labor conditions (including higher pay, the right to form unions, the right to strike, and the demand for limits on the number of work hours, and safe working condition.

In a nutshell the many reform movements that originated in the 1800s have had a major impact on the U.S that we know today. While there were so many reform movements, not all f them were successful in accomplishing what people wanted .we can only wonder what would have happened if

What was abolishment and what did it have to do with slaves

What is abolition and what does it actually mean

The goal of the abolitionist movement was the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the end of racial discrimination and segregation. Advocating for immediate emancipation distinguished abolitionists from more moderate anti-slavery advocates who argued for gradual emancipation, and from free-soil activists who sought to restrict slavery to existing areas and prevent its spread further west. Radical abolitionism was partly fueled by the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening, which prompted many people to advocate for emancipation on religious grounds. Abolitionist ideas became increasingly prominent in Northern churches and politics beginning in the 1830s, which contributed to the regional animosity between North and South leading up to the Civil War.

In a nutshell: the north wanted to abolish slavery while the south did not. However while people still had slaves, some were able to escape to safety by running to Canada or Mexico through the help of Herriot Tubmans creation of the Underground Railroad.

Women going out against slavery:The split within the antislavery movement reflected a widening gap between the radicals’ idealism and refusal to compromise, and the moderates’ interest in practical politics and achievable results. But it began with the “woman question,” and antislavery played an important part in the development of the women’s movement, primarily through its impact on individual women who began as abolitionists and then became increasingly active on behalf of woman’s rights.

Summary: women's rights activists and abolitionists wanted equality for all and were willing to do anything to gain it. Even though they had to wait a while to gain it, they achieved their goal.

The National Women's Suffrage Association was started in 1869 by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony. There were other interests of the women's suffrage movement such as equal pay and legal equality. Suffrage quickly became the chief goal of the women's rights movement. Leaders of the movement believed that if women had the vote, they could use it to gain other rights. The suffragists faced strong opposition; The Society Women of Beacon Hill were among the list of oppositions. They saw politics as corrupt, and if women gained the right to vote, then the women themselves would also become corrupt. The Democratic Party was also against the NWSA and other suffrage groups mainly because they were afraid that if women gained the right to vote then soon the black women would follow. Many others who opposed the movement were the alcohol brewers, husbands and the media. The nineteenth amendment, which gave women the right to vote, was added to the constitution in May of 1919.

One day in 1841, a Boston woman named Dorothea Dix agreed to teach Sunday school at a jail. What she witnessed that day changed her life forever. She was horrified to see that many inmates were bound in chains and locked in cages. Children accused of minor thefts were jailed with adult criminals. She wanted to find out if the conditions were this bad everywhere else.

To find out, she visited hunderds of jails and prisons throughout Massachusetts. She also visited debtors' prisons, or jails for people who owed money. Most of the thousands of Americans in debtors' prisons owed less than $20. While they were locked up, they could not earn money to repay their debts. As a result, they were imprisoned for years. This angered her beyond extent and others which began the prison reform movement to fix the treatment of inmates.

Summary: The prison reform was a major movement in the U.S to improve the treatmen of inmates and to give them a chance for repenting and their crimes. The reform movement was successful, but sadly we still have treatment of inmates that is unjust and unfair

Alcohol abuse was common in the early 1800s, especially in the West and among urban workers. Reformers blamed alcohol for poverty, the breakup of families, and crime. They called for temperance, drinking little or no alcohol. Temperance crusaders used lectures, pamphlets, and revival-style rallies to warm people of the dangers of alcohol. The movement gained a major victory in 1851, when Maine passed a law banning the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages. Other states passed similar laws, but most were repealed within several years.

Summary: Alcohol was widely used in the 1800s, more and more laws were trying to strengthen the production of alcohol and alcohol products.Many people disagreed with the abuse of alcohol, so in response they made a reform movement about it. After a while laws were passed prohibiting the mass production of alcohol.

A major reform movement that won widespread support was the effort to make education available to more children. The man who led this movement was Horace Mann, "the father of American public schools." As a boy in Massachusetts, he attended school only 10 weeks a year. The rest of the time, he had to work on the family farm.By 1850, many states in the North and West used Mann's ideas. But America still did not offer education to everyone. Most high schools and colleges did not admit females. When towns did allow African Americans to attend school, most made them go to separate schools that received less money. Education for women did make some progress. In 1837, Ohio's Oberlin College became the first college to accept women, in addition to men. In 1837, Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke, teh nation's first permanent women's college.

The education reform movement was one of the greatest reform movements of all time, this movement was the reason we have the schools we have today. We have Horace Mann to thank for this who is the reason why we have free public education.

Credits:

Created with images by Boston Public Library - "The great Republican reform party." • edenpictures - "Washington Irving" • Believe Creative - "Abraham Lincoln - head & shoulders portrait" • Stifts- och landsbiblioteket i Skara - "The Benevolent Effects of Abolishing the Slave Trade" • mollyktadams - "Women's March on Washington - 1/21/17" • Falkenpost - "prison cell slammer" • sachmet - "ALCHOHOL" • Hermann - "books education school"

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