Southern Africa Pages 377-396

Landforms and Bodies of Water

  1. Southern Africa is bordered by the Indian Ocean on the east and the Atlantic Ocean on the west
  2. Several of the regions countries are fairly large
  3. The country of Madagascar occupies the worlds fourth-largest island


  1. The escarpment is a steep cliff between a higher and lower surface
  2. The plateaus outer edges form a steep slope called the Great Escarpment
  3. As the Great Escarpment follows South Africa coastline, it forms the Drakensberg Mountains

Bodies Of Water

  1. 3 major river systems is the Zambezi, Limpopo, and Orangedrain
  2. The Orange River is Southern Africa's second-longest river
  3. The regions third longest river the Limpopo flows Kalahari Desert
  1. Plateaus


  1. The Tropic of Capricorn crosses the middle of Southern Africa
  2. Each area gets as much as 70 inches of rain per year

Tropical Zone

  1. Summer days are warm-from 70F to 90F depending onelevation
  2. Most of the rain falls during summer, with very little the rest of the year

Desert Regions

  1. In some years, no rain falls
  2. During wet years, desert grasses and bushes appear

Question-what natural resources are found in Southern Africa, and why are they important?

  1. Because its mostly wet all the time or its freezing cold

Natural Resources-Question

  1. Mineral Resources & Southern Africa
  2. Because they get resources that provide wealth and help them to build a strong economy

South Africa Resources

  1. This industry has attracted workers & investments from other countries that have helped South Africa's industries grow
  2. diamonds used to make cutting or grinding tools

Energy Resource

  1. Angola is also one of Africa's leading oil producers
  2. The region's rivers are another resources for providing power

Minerals and Other Resources

  1. Gold is a leading export for Zimbabwe
  2. Malawi's most important natural resource is its fertile soil


  1. Poaching, or illegally game, is a problem

Question-How does deforestation affect the energy supply in the region?

  1. Deforestation, however, allows more sediment to enter the rivers, which reduces the water flow and the electricity that the rivers produce

History of Southern Africa-Rise of Kingdoms

  • Southern Africa's indigenous people have inhabited the region for thousands of years.

Great Zimbabwe

  • Around the year A.D. 900, the Shona people built a wealthy and powerful kingdom in what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique.
  • Great Zimbabwe was abandoned in the 1400s, possibly because its growing population exhausted its water and food resources.

The Mutapa Empire

  • In the late 1400s, the Shona conquered the region between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers from Zimbabwe to the coast of Mozambique.
  • The Portuguese arrived and took over the coastal trade in the 1500s

Other Kingdoms

  • The Zulu leader Shaka united his people in the early 1800s to form the Zulu Empire in what is now South Africa.
  • A series of Kingdoms rose and fell on the island of Madagascar from the 1600s to the 1800s.

European Colonies

  • Around 1500s Portugal and other European countries began establishing settlements along the African coast.

Clashes in South Africa

  • The Africans did not like the Dutch pushing into their land, and soon they started fighting over it.

The Union of South Africa

  • In the 1860s, the Boers discovered diamonds in their territory

Colonialism in Other Areas

  • While the British and the Boers competed for South Africa, other European countries were competing over the rest of Africa

Q-Which Eurpean country claimed the most territory in Southern Africa in the 1800s

  • Great Britain

Independence and Equal Rights

  • French rule in Madagascar ended in 1960, making it the first Southern African country to gain independence

The End of Portuguese

  • The thousands of troops Portugal sent to crush these revolts failed to do so

The Birth of Zimbabwe

  • Rhodesia's African population demanded the right to vote

Equal Rights in South Africa

  • By the 1970s, apartheid-related events in South Africa had gained world attention
  • The new government leaders began enacting laws that created a system called apartheid---an Afrikaans word meaning 'apartness.'
  • The government's violent response to

Life in Southern Africa-The People of the region

  • The population of Southern Africa is overwhelmingly black African

Population Patterns

  • Fewer than 2 million people live in the small countries of Lesotho and Swaziland.
  • Population depends heavily on geography and economics.
  • Most of Mozambique's 23 million people are engaged in farming, mainly along the fertile coastal plain.

Ethnic and Culture Groups

  • South Africa's 9 million Zulu make up that country's largest ethic group.
  • About 4 million Tswana from the major population group in Botswana.
  • Groups like the Chewa, Tsonga, Ambo, and San illustrate an divided point about Southern Africa's history.

Religion and Languages

  • Southern Africa's colonial past has also influenced its people's religious beliefs.
  • In Angola, however, nearly half the population continues to hold traditional indigenous religious beliefs,

Q-'Where is the main religion practiced in Southern Africa?

  • Christians

Life in Southern Africa

  • As in other regions of Africa, life differs from city to countryside.

Urban Life

  • Although most people in the region of Southern Africa live in the countryside, migration cities grows because of job opportunities.

Urban Growth and Change

  • The rapid growth of some cities has strained public utilities-services such as trash collection, sewage treatment, and water distribution.
  • The region's cities have a mix of many ethnic groups and cultures.
  • Johannesburg's role has a mining, manufacturing, and financial center has attracted people from around the world.

Family and Traditional life

  • Building materials, which vary by ethnic group, include rocks, mud bricks, woven sticks and twigs packed with clay, and thatch-straw or other plant material used to cover roofs.
  • People in the countryside practice subsistence farming, growing the food they need to survive.

Q-'Where in their countries do most Southern Africans live'?

  • countryside

Southern Africa Today

  • Still, the region faces serious social, economic, and political challenges.

Health Issues

  • Life expectancy in Southern Africa is low.


  • Malaria, a tropical disease carried by mosquitoes, is a problem in several countries.
  • A major cause of death in children and adults is HIV/AIDS.
  • The disease has created millions of AIDS related family issues.

Progress and Growth

  • Oil exports in Angola and aluminum exports in Mozambique help finance this effort.
  • Tourism at national parks has grown with the establishment of stable, Democratic governments.

Help From Other Countries

  • The United States has used economic aid to strengthen democracy in Southern Africa.
  • Other countries and international organizations have also made huge investments in the region.

Q-'Why is life expectancy in Southern Africa so low'?

  • Malaria, Malnutrition, HIV/AIDS


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