La Historia de España Nathan Kopanski 8 Corazones

Many rutas comerciales went through Spain, in addition to it being usó as a place to stop, repair, trade, and rest.

The First Invasion

The Celts were the first group to invadió Spain. They were very basic and had little las armas.

The Celtas tomó over the oeste part of Spain.

At the same time, the Iberos, who are African, took control over the este part of Spain.

The Celts and Iberos vino together to form the Celtiberos. They vivió in the center of Spain, and inhabited this area as a la civilización.

Some places today still tuvo la influencia of the Celtiberos.

For Example, the Iberian Peninsula name comes from these people.

Galicia, Spain, also has some influences of the Celtic culture, such as their el idioma.

Here Comes Rome!

The next to invade Spain were the Romans, at this time the Roman Empire was constantly en expansión, and was very poderoso. One problem that the Roman Empire faced was that they brought very little las provisiones with them, and mató everyone they made contact with. The fall of the Roman Empire in Spain was in 409 A.D.

Similar to the Celtiberos, the Romans also left el edificio and el artículo from their lives. Two of the most recognizable builds are the el acueducto in Segovia, and the el coliseo in Merida.

Kingdom of the Visigoths

The Visigoths, or more commonly known as the Goths, were Germanic Barbarians. This group lived in Spain for a short period of time.

Another INvasion?

The Moors, a group of Arabs, Berbers, and Syrians from North Africa invaded the peninsula in 711 AD, and defeated the Visigoths. This group conquistó nearly all of spain.

The Moors were Muslims escaping persecution in Africa, and traveled to Spain to do so.

At this time La Mezquita fue the largest Mosque outside a Muslim Country, and still is hoy.

Cordoba was the largest city in Western Europe in the 10th Century. This was the center of the world's rico and most culto country.

La Reconquista!

Almost continual el enfrentamiento between Christian kingdoms in el norte of the peninsula and Muslims, who controlled the south, which continued for over trescientos el año.

Muslim Spain called “Al-Andalus” in Arabic and Santiago, who later becó the Patron saint of Spain, yelled Matamoros, meaning "To kill Muslims."

Many people question why Santiago is considered a saint when he wanted the death of many people. This is because of el martirio he became a saint.

Toledo

Toledo at the time was considered a "City of Tolerance". This City permitido people of all la religión, some including: Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Today, this is still noticeable influences of their presents, such as Sinagogas, iglesias, catedrales and Arab style architecture.

El Cid

El Cid was conocido as a hero of la Reconquista.

Big changes in 1492!

In 1942, the Moors had dividido into many small el reino, and the last Moorish king, in Granada, derrotado in January of 1492.

REYEs Catolicos

Fernando of Aragon and Isabel of Castilla were casado in 1469. Together they united Christian kingdoms against the Moors. They solidified their power through religion and el ejército success. They also ended the Reconquista by defeating the Moors in Granada in 1492.

THe Spanish Inquisition

In 1492 the last Moorish king was defeated.

All Muslims remaining in Spain were forzado to irse de or convirtió to Christianity. Then in 1502, given the success against the Muslims, it is now decided that all Jews need to leave Spain or convert to Christianity.

Gold Diggers

The la definición of a la cazafortunas is someone who marries for money and power.

Juana, the daughter of Fernando and Isabel, marries Felipe el Hermoso of the powerful Habsburg family. Juana became known as Juana la Loca. Legend has is that when Felipe died, she cargó his coffin through the streets of Granada, stopping often to kiss the corpse of the dead king.

Carlos I

Carlos I lived from 1516-1556. He was the Son of Juana la Loca and Felipe el Hermoso. He became Holy Roman Emperor. Under His rule, Spanish Empire creció rapidly, Conquistas of Incas and Aztecs. The country was gaining much el oro and la plata from Americas along with new crops: maíz, papas and frutas. Along his rule he changed his name and became Carlos V. Carlos V was also known to some people as the Guerrero de la carretera. He used the funds that were torrencial in from the colonies to subvencionó the many religious wars he was la pelea across Europe. Spain under Carlos V became one of the staunchest defenders of Catholicism, as it fought to stop the spread of the Protestant Reformation across Europe. He pasó this legacy to his successor, his son Felipe

felipe II

Felipe II lived from 1556-1598. He continuo wars against Protestants. Then in 1554, married Mary Tudor of England in an attempt to create an international Catholic la alianza. A male heir from this marriage would have become King of England, however, there was no son and the protestant Elizabeth I came to power in England. A war comenzó involving England when Portugal was Annexed, the Dutch declarada Independencia from Spain. This war terminó in 1588 due to Spain’s invincible Armada being defeated by England.

The Black Legend

The Black Legend. This was propaganda el aviso people not to travel to Spain.

More habsburg Kings

Felipe II (left) is triunfó by his son, the aptly named Felipe III. Felipe III (middle) murió and his son takes the throne, Felipe IV (right). Yep, Felipe IV reigns from 1621-1665. He has control over one of the richest cultural periods in Spanish history: the Siglo de Oro.

END of the Habsburgs

Carlos II

Felipe IV’s son, Carlos II is known as “El Hechizado," the Bewitched. He died on 1700, leaving no heir to ascendió to the throne of Spain.

War!

War of Spanish Succession pitted royal families and their nations against each other to see who would rule Spain. War ends in 1713, with Spain perdedor Gibraltar to the English. Felipe V, the Bourbon el nieto of Louis XIV, becomes King of Spain. The Bourbon family los restos the la familia real of Spain today.

The Bourbons

Competent rulers, but more concerned with life at court. Efforts to convert Spain into a modern state, based on the Neoclassical ideas of the Enlightenment.

War!!

Rebellion of 2 May 1808 in Madrid empezó War of Spanish Independence. Joseph Bonaparte removió from throne of Spain four years after the War in 1812. Constitution of 1812 estableció a monarquía parlamentaria.

Fernando VII

Lived from 1814-1833. Son of Carlos IV, Fernando VII, regresó from exile in France to rule after defeat of Napoleon’s los soldados. Totalitario rule, constantly at odds with liberals who wanted to expand on la constitución of 1812. He died leaving a daughter Isabel. The country is dividido on the issue of a woman ruler. Supporters of Fernando’s brother, Carlos face off against more liberal supporters of Isabel in several “Guerras Carlistas," Carl Wars. Isabell II reigns from 1833-1868

Those CRAZY Bourbons

Isabell II rules through political turmoil, with the Carlists continually opuesto her authority. The “Glorious Revolution” removes Isabel II from power in 1868. And short-lived experiment places King Amadeo of Saboya, and el italiano, on the el trono from 1870-1873.

The First spanish republic

The first spanish la república is proclamó in 1873, and ends in 1874

Here We Go Again...

The Bourbons return to the throne with the reign of Alfonso XII from 1875-1885, followed by his son ALfonso XII from 1902-1931. Alfonso XII was born in 1885. His mother oversaw the government as his regent in the interim. In typical Bourbon fashion, Spain quickly begins a downside, marked by the loss of it last remaining colonies in 1898 and embarrassing military defeats in Morocco.

Alfonso XIII

Unable to put a stop to the political tension and low morale of the country, Alfonso XIII allows a military general to establish a dictatorship from 1923-1931. Have tried: Monarchy, Parli. Monarchy, Totalitarian, Republic, and Dictatorship. Monarchy is the only thing that has worked this far. The dictatorship is unable to solve the problems of the country. In 1931, elections are held to determine if Spain should continue a monarchy or give democracy another try.

Let's try this again...

The second Republic of Spain is established in 1931, ushering in an era of hope and optimism. They set up a new, progressive constitution, which gives women the right to vote, allow divorce, separates the Church from the State, and creates public schools

Civil War!!!

The new government creates and even deeper political and social divide. The military, the Church and the upper classes think there are too many changes going on. While, socialists and communist factions think there is not enough changes and want more changes. General Francisco Franco stages a military revolt in 1936, beginning the Civil War. Franco’s fascist troops are aided by forces from Germany and Italy. Republican forces get very little help. War ends in 1939, with Franco’s Nationalist forces winning, creating the second dictatorship.

Francisco Franco

Francisco Franco, was a fascist dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. He Idealized “gory years” of Spain under Carlos V and Felipe II. He took away gender roles, religion, regionalism banned, and censorship. he was also responsible for the exile of artists, intellectuals, scientists.

One more time!!

Basque terrorist group ETA assassinates Franco’s chosen successor. Franco chooses grandson of Alfonso XIII to take over. Upon Franco’s death in 1975, Juan Carlos I de Borbon becomes King of Spain. Instead of continuing Franco’s policies or establishing and absolute monarchy, Juan Carlos declares democracy in Spain. He names Adolfo Suarez as first Prime Minister. Suarez begins the period known as the Transition.

Democracia

Becoming more involved.

In 1978, Suarez is elected in the first election held in Spain since 1936. In the 80’s Felipe Gonzalez leads Spain out of isolation, joining NATO and the EU. Jose Maria Aznar increases Spain’s influence in the world, with a growing economy and a strong alliance with the USA

March 11

On March 11, 2004, Islamic fundamentalist terrorists place bombs on several commuter trains in Madrid, killing nearly 200 and injuring over 2000. Two days after the attack, elections proclaim Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero the new Prime Minister of Spain

Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero

His first action, as promised, was to withdraw Spanish troops from the US war with Iraq. Under his government, Spain joined several other European nations in legalizing same-sex marriages.

La familia real

As a parliamentary monarchy, Spain retains its royal family, although all government decisions are handled by Parliament and the President of the Government.

Credits:

Created with images by Unsplash - "buildings mijas spain" • Unsplash - "walking trail forest woods" • Bernhard_Staerck - "celtic cross celts scotland" • Theo Crazzolara - "West Coast" • Á. M. Felicísimo - "Exvoto ibero" • Á. M. Felicísimo - "Cerámica celtibérica" • Unsplash - "audience concert music" • sky_hlv - "Laguna del Portil (Huelva)" • raulbarreiro - "cathedral ourense old town" • Steppinstars - "colosseum roman italy" • PublicDomainPictures - "ancient roman empire armor" • ClaudioLombardi - "roman holiday birthplace of rome roman soldiers" • Rising Damp - "Sleeping beauty" • jackmac34 - "spain segovia aqueduct" • Luisfpizarro - "merida extremadura hispania roma" • armandoone - "castle trees abandoned" • Tim Green aka atoach - "Wall on Ilkley Moor" • SJTUK - "granada alhambra generalife" • katiebordner - "La Mezquita" • campunet - "cordoba church river" • blondinrikard - "Cross" • chidioc - "kid praying muslim" • Kukullus - "toledo city spain" • Tim Green aka atoach - "Baildon Moor" • congerdesign - "passion three crosses cross" • skeeze - "world earth planet" • fdecomite - "Flag Spain"

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