Industrialization The impact of inventions on euRopean industry

Watt and Savery, the Steam Engine. Although the concept had been developed upon before, as evidenced by Savery's 1698 steam engine, a steady source of power was needed to fuel this revolution. In 1781 Watt developed a coal-fired engine that could be used anywhere, providing power for these other fantastical inventions and setting the stage for the revolution.

Cartwright and Hargreaves, developed the the loom and spinning Jenny, respectively. These inventions would lead to the explosion of the British Textile Industry as millions of tons of fabric were exported.

Trevithick was vital in his invention of the first steam powered locomotive, although it only went 5 mph. Later, George Stephenson would improve on his design with the Rocket, which traveled a whopping 16 mph between Manchester and Liver.

Two inventors who are far too forgotten are Cort and Bessemer. Cort's process of puddling allowed other English industries to use high quality iron on a massive scale, improving society for all. Later, Bessemer would develop a process for making steel on a commercial scale, a vital material which is the foundation of our infrastructure to this date.

Henry, Faraday, and the founding father Benjamin Franklin himself were all vital to our modern day understanding of electricity and electromagnetism. Without them we would not be able to make our machines run so efficiently and our society would still be using hand cranked mechanisms.

The lightbulb is something we take for granted, but for most of the 19th century people still worked by candlelight. The development and improvement of the common lightbulb by Edison and Swan had an immense effect on society, as it allowed factory workers to work past sunlight, increasing productivity across the board.

The contributions made by Marconi, Bell, and Hertz cannot be understated. Bell's telephone improved upon the already existing telegraph system by allowing for real time conversations from miles and miles away. But Hertz's research into electromagnetic radiation and Marconi's subsequent development of radio transmission revolutioned the entire world. A family in Brooklyn could listen to a broadcast from California, and a captain could relay orders to his soldiers, all without a direct connection.

Lenoir would have his eureka moment in Paris when he finally developed the internal combustion engine, but it's design was inefficient. 2 years later Nikolaus Otto would develop his own engine which was capable of using readily available liquid fuel. This engine would prove to be ridiculously powerful and even scalable, making it a necessary precursor to the invention of automobiles.

In many ways Henry Ford and the Model T represent the culmination of the entire industrial revolution. Before them a majority of these gadgets were only available to the upper class. Hnery Ford would be instrumental in introducing the assembly line method to his car factories, enabling work to occur at an unprecedented rate. With that, the industrial revolution finally ended up in the hands of the common man as even a farmer could own an automobile.

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Steven Ginnane

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